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60 Cards in this Set

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NEOPLASM
an abnormal mass of tissue the growth of which exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of normal tissue, and persists in the same excessive manner after cessation of stimuli
NEOPLASIA
process of abnormal, autonomous proliferation of cells
CANCER
a malignant neoplasm
MALIGNANT
denotes a neoplasm that can invade or metastasize
INVASION
growth into surrounding tissues, bv, or lymphatics
METASTASIS

What does it involve?

Where are frequent sites of metastatic cancer?
growth of cancer cells at a second, separate site (secondary neoplasm or metastatic neoplasm)

called metastasis, and the spread involves detachment and movement of cancer cells and usually moves through lymphatic channels of bv

lymph nodes, liver, and lungs are frequent sites of metastatic cancer
PRIMARY
original neoplasm
SECONDARY
mestasis or metastases
CARCINOMA
a malignant neopalsm of epithelial origin

arising in glandular tissue- - ADENOCARCINOMA

term may be modified by adjectives indicating cell type and degree of differentiation
SARCOMA
malignant neoplasm of mesenchymal cell origin

ex) connective tissue, bone, fat, msucle

FIBROSARCOMA is a malignant neoplasm of fibroblasts
DIFFERENTIATION
the extent to which cells resemble comparable normal cells, both morphologically and functionally
ANAPLASIA
failure of cells to differentiate to normal adult phenotype

ANAPLASIA is characteristic of malignant transformation

important histologic criterion for recognition of malignant neoplasm
PLEOMORPHISM
varying size and shape
ATYPIA
irregular, not conforming to type
APOPTOSIS
programmed- cell death, cell death which occurs as a normal part of development and continuing function of an organ or tissue
APOPTOSIS
programmed cell death- - death which occurs as a normal part of development and continuing function of an organ or tissue
ACINAR
glandular
PAPILLARY
forming finger- like growths with central stalk and an epithelial surface
DYSPLASIA
some degree of loss of normal differentiation of cells and tissues

a premalignant chance, dysplasia leads to abnormalities in size, shape, and organization of cells
CARCINOMA IN SITU
a lesion which is histologically malignant, but has not yet invaded
TERATOMA
a benign neoplasm with components representing all three germ layers
HAMARTOMA
a benign but disorderly mass of tissues normally present at the site

not considered a neoplasm
STROMA
the vascular connective tissue supporting the parenchyma of an organ or supporting the proliferating cells of a neoplasm
FIBROMA, FIBROSARCOMA
tumors of fibroblasts
LEIOMYOMA, LEIOMYOSARCOMA
tumors of smooth muscle cells
RHABDOMYOSARCOMA
malignant tumor of striated muscle cells
***NON- NEOPLASTIC PROCESSES
***
TUMOR
swelling; a very general term that encompasses neoplasms as well as non- neoplastic lesions
NEOPLASM
an abnormal mass of tissue, the growth which exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of the normal tissues and persists in the same excessive manner after cessation of the stimuli which evoked the change
What are 5 types of NON NEOPLASTIC PROCESSES? (MHHCH)
1) METAPLASIA
2) HYPERPLASIA
3) HYPERTROPHY
4) CHORISTOMA
5) HAMARTOMA
What are the 2 main types of NEOPLASMS?
BENIGN and MALIGNANT
METAPLASIA

Example?
adaptive change from the fully differentiated cell type to anotehr fully differentiated cell type in adult tissue

ex) glandular to squamous epitheliumin uterine cervix

gastric to intestinal epithelium in chronic gastritis (intestinal metaplasia)

squamous epithelium to glandular epithelium (barretts espohagus)
2) HYPERPLASIA
an increase in the number of cells

ex) hyperplastic polyp of colon
ex) benign prostatic hyperplasia
3) HYPERTROPHY
increase in the SIZE of the cells

ex) cardiac hypertrophy
4) CHORISTOMA
"separated"

normal cells in an abnormal location

separated from their intended site during embryological migration

ex) ectopic focus of pancreatic tissue in the esophagus
5) HAMARTOMA
"defect"

a mass, the cells of which are normally present in that particaular organ, but are in an abnormal arrangement, often with on cell type predominating

ex) pulmonary hamartoma which often consists primarily of cartilage, but may also have respiratory epithelium, fat, fibrous tissue, and bv
What is a BENIGN NEOPLASM?
does not invade/metastasize; may cause morbidity
What is a MALIGNANT NEOPLASM?
different ways of defining it

one def refers to ability of neoplasm to metastasize

another def refers to ability to invade normal tissue and kill the patient (ex brain neoplasms don't metastasize, but they are malignant as they invade and compress normal brain parenchyma)
What is CARCINOMA?
an epithelial malignancy
What is SARCOMA?
a mesenchymal malignancy
What is the likelihood of METASTASIS?

What does the likelihood of metastasis vary with?
All carcinoid tumors are potentially malignant

The likelihood of metastasis varies with anatomic location, size, and depth of invasion
In what tissue types can MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS be found? (5)

What are the MALIGNANT CATEGORIES?


What is the IMMUNOPEROXIDASE MARKER?
1) Epithelium - carcinoma
2) Mesenchyme - sarcoma
3) Hematolymphoid - leukemia/ lymphoma
4) Melanocytes - melanoma
5) Neuroglial cells - astrocytoma
What is DYSPLASIA? (specifically)

What's the difference between LOW- GRADE and HIGH- GRADE dysplasia?
It is an INTERMEDIATE step between "normal" and "carcinoma."

LOW- GRADE dysplasia is morphologically closer to normal, and HIGH- GRADE dysplasia is closer to being cancer.

Classic ex) UTERINE CERVIX as result of HPV infection

There is possibility of LOW-GRADE dysplasia reverting back to normal
DIFFERENTIATION?
the degree to which neoplastic cells resemble normal cells (both morphologically and functionally)
ATYPIA
morphologically different from the normal cell

nuclei may be larger, darker, and have irregular nuclear contours
PLEOMORPHISM
variation in cellular appearance WITHIN a tumor
PARENCHYMA
in a purely epithelial neoplasm, the parenchyma is the neoplastic epithelial component
STROMA
it is the connective tissue component (bv, fibrous tissue)

usually consider stroma to be "reactive" (non-neoplastic) mesenchymal tissue associated with an epithelial neoplasm

stromal changes are in response to the neoplastic cells, without the stromal cells having the genetic alterations of the neoplastic/ parenchymal component

in some neoplasms, both the epithelial and stromal components are neoplastic
What are some problems that may cause problems with BENIGN NEOPLASMS?
1) strategic location
2) hormone production
3) cosmetics
4) malignant transformation
What are two ways you can get MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS?
1) Invasion
2) Metastasis
What are 3 overlapping processes related to invasion?
1) Adhesion of malignant cells to endothelium

2) Expression of collagenase and other proteolytic enzymes, making holes in the capillary basement membrane

3) Movement of malignant cells through the holes into the interstitium
A) What is the role of METASTASIS in MALIGNANT NEOPLASM?

B) Which distant sites are colonized?

C) What are the rates of invasion and metastasis?
A)First of all METASTASIS IS the passive and active motion of cells in tissue fluids, leading to lymphatics in the bloodstream

Vascular invasion enhanced by new vessel formation (angio- genesis) by host tissue, partly in response ot growth factors produced by tumor cells

B) The distant sites that are colonized depends on properties of the malignant cells

C) Rates of invasion and metastasis vary widely, with differences between the types of neoplasm and between individual examples of anyone type of neoplasm.

The biologic behavior of a given neoplasm is not predictable with certainty.
NEOPLASTIC CELL PHENOTYPE:

What are the two ways you can define AUTNOMOUS GROWTH?
1) in vivo
2) in vitro
Describe IN VIVO autonomous growth.

What are the characteristics of metastasis?
Invivo autonomous growth is characterized by uncontrolled growth of a clone of cells to become a "mass," or "tumor" or "spot". The following growth characteristics are:

1) invasion
2) metastasis
3) transplantability
Describe IN VITRO autonomous growth.
!) loss of contact inhibition (densitiy- dependent inhibition of growth)
2) ability to grow without attachment
3) immortality, the ability to grow indefinitely in cell culture
What characteristics may be noted in ALTERED DIFFERENTIATION?
1) loss of normal products

2) new products, cd metaplasia, transdifferentiation

3) expression of fetal genes
CHARACTERISTICS OF MALIGNANT CELLS:

1) FUNCTIONAL
FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTIC characterized by transformation. There's a lesser degree of differentiation and lack of response to normal growth control.

IN VITRO: immortality, lossof contact inhibition and frequent loss of programmed cell death
2) MORPHOLOGIC
There's a lesser degree of differentiation (greater with anaplasia)

Pleomorphic

Increased mitotic activity iwth central necrosis
3) HETEROGENIC
Features vary from one area to another
What are characteristics of NEOPLASMS that may help us predict behavior?
1) Tumor type
2) Tumor grade: degree of anaplasia, pleomorphism, mitotic activity
3) Tumor stage: size of primary, location, and extent of metastasis