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42 Cards in this Set

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Amphibians have BLANK urine, while mammals BLANK urine
amphibians have dilute, mammals concentrated
A tubular structure that regulates blood volume and blood composition, producing urine
kidneys
Urine derived from...
blood plasma, containing solutes and nitrogenous wastes
Kidneys excrete H+ to
regulate blood pH
Kidneys excrete water to
control osmotic pressure of blood
Blood composition regulated by (2) excretions
controlled excretions of blood solutes (including toxins) and water
Basic unit of the kidney
nephron, tubules that connect to collecting ducts that lead out of the body
Primary urine is formed where?
In Bowman's capsule of nephrons by ultrafiltration and secretion
Ultrafiltration is accomplished by
hydrostatic pressure in the glomerulus, forces fluid from blood into nephron
GFR, glomerular filtration rate...
rate of primary urine formation; humans it is about 120 mL/minute, or all plasma in 30 minutes
Secretion (active solute secretion)...
Active transport of a solute into the renal tubule, followed by osmosis and diffusion of other solutes into the tubule
Definitive urine produced by?
extensive modification, both in volume and composition, of the primary urine within renal tubules
Filtrate leaves blood because of...
a net filtration pressure caused by hydrostatic pressure
Secretion via active transport of one solute...
causes water and other solutes to follow
Much of the filtrate in amphibians reabsorbed from
proximal tubule into blood, including NaCl, HCO3, glucose, amino acids, producing isosmotic urine (U/P = 1)
Amphibians: NaCl actively reabsorbed from...
distal tubule
Water reabsorption controlled by...
altering permeability of the tubule to water; lower permeability = hyposmotic urine
BLANK increases water permeability of distal tubule
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) decreases water excretion
ADH reduces BLANK and promotes BLANK reabsorption
reduces glomerular filtration rate and promotes NaCl reabsorption
Amphibians can store water in their bladder because
urinary bladder responds to ADH by reabsorbing NaCl and increasing water permeability (and reabsorption)
In amphibians and many reptiles, nephrons form
messy knots, unlike mammals
In all vertebrates, nephrons empty into a BLANK, which conveys urine to the ureter
collecting duct
Diuresis
low ADH levels cause less water reabsorption
Antidiuresis
high ADH levels cause increased water reabsorption
Vasopressin (ADH) causes
aquaporins to be incorporated into apical membrane of collecting duct of epithelial cells via protein kinase
Mammals produce BLANK urine, unlike amphibians
produce hyperosmotic urine, because of the structure of the kidney and its tubules
Concentrating urine involves
going through collecting ducts through higher concentrations of NaCl as it leaves kidney, water pulled out of urine by osmosis
BLANK generate the NaCl gradient above by active NaCl pumping out of ascending segment
loops of Henle
Urea is at high concentration in?
high concentration in medulla and collecting duct, which is permeable to urea and contains concentrated urine
Medulla blood supply is
by the looped vasa recta
Vasa Recta
preserves NaCl concentration gradient by passive countercurrent diffusion exchange of solutes and gains of water by the blood via colloid osmosis
The single effect
driven by NaCl pumping
How is the osmotic gradient established along length of the loop?
By active NaCl transport and countercurrent urine flow
In the rat kidney, osmotic pressure increases from
cortex to outer medulla to inner medulla; this osmotic gradient drives water reabsorption from collecting duct
The collecting duct becomes permeable to water during...
antidiuresis, and water moves into interstitial fluid by osmosis
Nitrogenous waste (urea) is in high concentration in both BLANK and BLANK
duct and medullary interstitial fluid
The collecting duct becomes less permeable to water during...
diuresis, and water remains in the urine and is excretedl NaCl reabsorbed, making urine more dilute
Proximal convoluted tubule
NaCl and glucose reabsorbed, H+ excreted
Ascending loop of Henle
NaCl reabsorbed, H+ excreted
Collecting duct
Na+ reasorbing cell: NaCl reabsorbed
Thickness of medulla correlation with urine concentrating ability
positively correlated with urine concentration ability, reflects the length of the loops of Henle
Sand rat vs lab rat
long renal papilla, long loops of Henle define extent