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318 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are proteins building blocks?
amino acids
How many amino acids chained together make a protein
100
What form of lipid are 3 fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule backbone
Triglyceride
What form of lipid is used as the major component of plasma membranes
Phosphlipids
A phosphate molecule and 2 fatty acids make up what form of lipid
phospholipid
Which form of lipid has a hydrophobic part and a hydrophilic part
phospholipids
Which form of lipid is an example of cholesterol needed for stabilizing plasma membranes
steriods
What are three types of steriod hormones
testosterone, estrogen, progesterone
Which macromolecule is composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
Protein
What are the 4 function of proteins
Structural reasons, communication, membrane transport, enzyme
What is the structure of proteins?
collagen and keratin
Where is the structure of protein (colagen) found
in skin and bones
Where is the structure of protein (keratin) found
dead skin, nails
What does membrane transport do
allows certain substances in and out of the cell
What is the function of an enzyme (catalyst)
speeds things up
What are the 4 types of macromolecules
Lipids, proteins, nucleic acid, carbohydrates
What does the macromolecule nucleic acid include
DNA & RNA
What is ATP?
our form of energy, also called a nucleotide
What is the plasma membrane made up of?
bilayer components, phospholipids, cholesterol, proteins
What are the three types of membrane proteins
Channel proteins, protein gates, protein pump
What does a channel protein do?
helps transport anything small enough that can come in and out
What does a protein gate do?
selects what can get through
What is the function of a protein pump?
uses ATP energy to move substances against the grain
What is cytoplasm
everything in the cell except the nucleus
What is in the cytoplasm
Cytosol
What is cytosol
fluid of the cell (mostly water)
What are organelles
structures suspended in the cytosol that perform functions for the cell
What is found in the cytoplasm
cytolsol and organelles
What ist he control center of a cell that contains DNA and RNA
nucleus
What does the nucleous envelope of the nucleus contains and what is it used for
contains pores for transportations of materials
Do RBC contain a nucleous
no
What is the name of the series of membrane hallways or tunnels throughout the cytosol
Endoplasmic reticulum
What part of the cell is used for controlling the movement of some materials in the cell?
endoplasmic reticulum
Which part of the cell has organelles called ribosomes embedded in their walls where phospoilids are made
rough ER
What is the function of ribosomes in the cell
location where proteins are made
What part of the cell stores calcium ions
smooth ER
What part of the cell destroys and detoxifies toxins?
smooth ER
What is the golgi complex?
a series of stacked membrane tunnels
What is the function of the golgi complex?
the next stop after the rought er, corrects any mistakes made during production of proteins
What part of the cell surrounds the finished product in a membrane bubble?
golgi complex
what part of the cell contains destructive enzymes in its walls
lysosome
What part of the cell engulfs bacteria, debris and old ineffective organelles
lysosome
What is the considered the "mighty powerhouse" of the cell?
mitochondria
What part of the cell has oval shaped organeles with lots of membrane folds inside
mitochondria
what pare of the cell is the energy provider for the cell
mitochondria
what part of the cell produces ATP
mitochondria
What is the function of the centrioles
help a cell produce cilia or flagella
What are cilia
hairlike extensions of a cells free surface
What is the function of cilia
move material across cell surface * helps with cell division
What is the tail like extension off the plasma membrane used for motility
flagellum
What are two examples of flagellum
sperm cell, bacteria
What are microvilli
small holes in the plasma membranes free surface
What are the three parts of centrioles
microvilli, flagellum, cilia
What is the function of microvilli
absorption and some sensory processes
What is plasma membrane transport
different ways things come in an dout of cell
Which form of transport happpens on its own and does not require ATP
passive mechanisms
What is simple diffusion
movement of molecules from areas of higher concentration to lower concentration
What is facilitated diffusion
movement of molecules from areas of higher concentration to lower concentration, protein channels help it happen
What is osmosis
movement of H2O from high water conce. to low H20 concent.
Which form of movement requires ATP
active transport
Movement from lower concentration to higher concentration is a form of what transport?
active transport
Which form of transport requires protein pump and ATP
active transport
What are groups of cells with similar functions called?
tissues
What are the 4 types of tissues
epithelial, connective, nervous, muscle
What are the thin layer or layers of cells found as coverings or linings on the body surfaces called?
Epithelial tissue
How many layers does a simple epithelial tissue have
1
How many layers does a stratified epithelial tissue have
2 or more
What are the shapes of epithelial tissue
squamous, cuboidal, columnar
Which tissue has a messy look and has cilia?
pseudostratified columnar
Which tissue is a catch all group (everything thrown in)
connective tissue
What are some functions of connective tissue
binding of organs, support, protect, transport.
What is the most common tissue and widely varing in appearance?
connective tissue
Which tissue contains fibers (proteins) and ground substance and dispersed cells
connective tissue
What does connective tissue protect?
physical and immune
What does connective tissue transport
gases, nutrients, waste
Which cells are found in connective tissue?
fibroblasts, macrophages, leukocytes (WBC) and adipocyte
Which cells found in connective tissue produce fibers and ground substance?
fibroblasts
Which cells found in connective tissue are a type of WBC that eats bacteria and infected cells
macrophages
What type of cell found in the connective tissue patrols the tissue?
leukocytes (WBC)
What type of cell found in the connective tissue stores triglycerides
adipocyte
What types of fibers are found in connective tissue
collagen and elastin
What is the most commmon protein in the body and is found in connective tissue?
collagen
Which fiber (protein) found in connective tissue doesn't stretch and is tough but flexible
collagen
Where do you find collagen?
skin, tendon
What fiber found in connective tissue is a protein that stretches and recoils back again
Elastin
What is the function of ground substances
fills spaces between cells and fibers.
What does ground substance protect against?
compression and other damage
What are the types of fibrous connective tissue
Areolar, reticular, adipose, dense connective tissue, cartilage, bone, blood
Which type of fibrous connective tissue has random organization and lots of blood vessels
areolar
Which type of fibrous connective tissue has meshlike arrangement of fibers and is found in spleen, lymph nodes
reticular
what part of the cell produces ATP
mitochondria
What is the function of the centrioles
hep a cell produce cilia or flagella
What are cilia
hairlike extensions of a cells free surface
What is the function of cilia
move material across cell surface * helps with cell division
What is the tail like extension off the plasma membrane used for motility
flagellum
What are two examples of flagellum
sperm cell, bacteria
What are microvilli
small holes in the plasma membranes free surface
What are the three parts of centrioles
microvilli, flagellum, cilia
What is the function of microvilli
absorption and some sensory processes
What is plasma membrane transport
different ways things come in an dout of cell
Which form of transport happpens on its own and does not require ATP
passive mechanisms
What is simple diffusion
movement of molecules from areas of higher concentration to lower concentration
What is facilitated diffusion
movement of molecules from areas of higher concentration to lower concentration, protein channels help it happen
What is osmosis
movement of H2O from high water conce. to low H20 concent.
Which form of movement requires ATP
active transport
What form of transport is movement from lower concent. to higher concent and requires protein pump and ATP
active transport
Which type of fibrous tissue stores energy and provides a cushion
Adipose
What type of fibrous tissue has cells that fill w/trigylcerides?
Adipose
What are two types of dense connective tissue
Regular * Dense
Which type of tissue contains little to no blood vessles
Cartilage
What are the three types of cartilage tissues
hyaline, elastic cartilgae and fibrocartilage
WHere is hyaline cartilage found?
tip of nose, larnyx and trachea
Where is elastic cartilage found
ear
Which tissue is highly excitable capable of carrying signal from cell to cell
nervous tissue
What are the 3 types of muscle tissue
skeletal, cardiac, and smooth
Which type of muscle tissue is multi culcleated
skeletal
What type of muscle tissue contains verticle structures called interraled disks
cardiac
What type of muscle tissue is used in swallowing and fece excretion
smooth
What are the three types of membranes
cutaneous, muscous and serous
what is the function of muscous membrane
lines passage ways connected to outside environment
What is the function of serous membranes
found in lining body cavities, abdominal pelvic area and outside of our organs
What is a membrane?
2 or 3 layers of tissue that work closely together
#1 barrier against getting sick?
skin
What are functions of the skin
protection, regulation, sensation and vit. D production
What does skin protect from?
physical, immunity and uv radiation
What does the skin regulate?
temp and H2O content of your body
What is the outermost layer of the skin which is made up of epithelial tissue?
epidermis
What are the 3 layers of the skin
epidermis, dermis and hypodermis
What are the 5 layers of epidermis?
stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosom, stratum lucidum, stratum corneum
What is the deepest layers of the skin?
stratum basale
What are the 3 different cells found in skin layer, stratum basale?
Keratinocyte, melanocytes, tactile cells
What cell of the stratum basale makes up most of the skin
keratinocytes
What cell of the the stratum basale contains protein keratin
keratinocyes
What cell in the stratum basale produces melanin and absorbs UV
Melanocytes
What cell in the stratum basale is involved with neurons to detect pressure
tactile cells
What zone of the skin contains many layers of kertinocyes
Stratum spinosum
What zone of the skin contains dendritic cells and patrolling wbc
stratum spinosum
Which zone of the skin contains dead cells
stratum granulosum
In which zone do keratinocytes product lipids that prevent water from passing through
stratum granulosum
Which zone is found with thick skin
stratum lucidim
Which zone of the skin is made of dead keratinocyes (skin that comes off)
stratum corneum
Which layer of the skin contains connnective tissue, hair follicles, sweat glands, blood vessels and nuerons
dermis
What does the dermis contains?
connective tissue, hair follicles, sweat glands, blood vessles and neurons
Which layer of skin contains adipose tissue
hypodermis
What does adipose regulate in the hypodermic
temperature
Which layer of skin contains lots of blood vessels
hypodermis
Which layer of the skin is considered subcutaneous
hypodermis
What is the function of bone tissue
support, movement, blood cell reproduction, potection and storage of minerals
What are 4 types of bone
flat, short, long and irregular
charge outside the neuron reverses in polarity to become negative is called what
polarization
What happens when you wrap myelin around axon
helps move more quickly
What is the largest part of the brain?
cerebrum
Which part of the brain is convulated (lots of folds)
cerebrum
Why are there folds in the brains?
to make more surface area.
What are two parts of the cerebrum?
gyri and sulci
What is the outer layer of the cerebrum called?
cerebral cortx
What matter is the cerebral cortex made up of?
gray matter
What seperates the two hemispheres of the cerebrum
longitudal fissure
What is the link between the left and right side of the brain?
corpous collosum
What is the function of the frontal lobe?
foresight, planning, emotions, personality, memory, aggression
What is the function of the partietal lobe
primary reception area (all physical feelings take place)
What is the function of the occipital lobe?
primary vision area
What is the function of the temporal lobe?
auditory, hearing, smell, close to ears
What does the diencephalon consist of
thalamus and hypothalamus
Which part of the diencephalon directs incoming signals to the appropriate part of the brain?
thalamus
What part of the diencephalon maintains homeostasis
Hypothalamus
What part of the brain stem helps with visual tracking
mid brain
what part of the brain stem helps with auditory location
mid brain
What part of the brain is known as the pneumotaxic center
pons
What part of the brain helps regulate breathing rate with out us needing to do it
pons
What part ofthe brain controls bladder and facial expressions
pons
What is the function of the pons?
pneumotaxic cetner, bladder control, regulate breathing and facial expressions
What part of the brain helps pons control breathing and heart rate control
medulla oblongata
What does the medulla oblongata help control
the pons control breathing
Which part of the brain coordinates skeletal muscles like movement/dancing
cerebellum
What part of the brain is the first part to feel alcohol
cerebellum
What produces cerebrospinal fluid?
ependysmal cells
Where does the cerebrospinal fluid circulate around
CNS and through central nervous systems
What are 3 purposes of cerebrospinal fluid
buoyancy, protection, chemical stability
What is the function of blood
transportation, protection and regulation
What does blood transport
nutrients, waste, gases, hormones, heat
What does blood protect?
WBC formed in bone marrow, infection, small proteins producted by your body called antibody (infection)
What does blood regulate?
H2O and Ph
What 2 main categories are found in our blood
formed elements and plasma
What are the 3 formed elements
erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets
What are RBC called?
erythrocytes
What are WBC called
Luekocytes
What are thrombocytes called
platelets
What is plasma made up of?
H20, nutrients, waste, gases, hormones, antibodies, electrolytes (ions)
Where are coronary vessels located in regards to the heart?
on the anterior surface of the heart
What is the function of coronary vessels?
bring oxygenated, nutrient rich blood to the heart tissue
What causes myocardial infarction?
blocked coronary arteries lead to insuffient oxygen being delivered to myocardium.
How do we control pumping of the heart?
There are nerves and speciliazed muscle cells within parts of the heart wall. Help initiate contractions and relaxations of the heart cells
Sinoatrial (SA) node located where?
upper right corner of the right atrium
Which structure of the conduction system is called the pacemaker
SA node
Which structure of the conduction system sends signals through both atria that cuases them to contract?
SA node
What part of the brain tells the brain what pace to set for heart beats?
medulla oblongata
Atrioventricular (AV) node is located where?
lower left corner of the right atrium
Which AV nodes responds to signals from the SA node
AV node
Which conduction node sends electrical signals down the atrioventicular bundle to the interventicular septum
AV node
What is the nerve from the AV node tot he top of the interventicular septum?
AV bundle
Which part of the conduction system splits to form bundle branches?
AV bundle
What are the nerves that travel down the septum to the apex of the heart, where they turn and branch as they travel back up
bundle branches
once bundles branches turn the corner they become??
purkinje fibers
What are purkinje fibers?
numerous small nerves that travel from apex of the heart up through walls
How is atrial contraction measures on the EKG?
P waves
What is the AV node signal that cuases venticular contraction measured on an EKG?
QRS complex
How is the ventricular relaxation measured on an EKG?
T Wave
Which node is responsible for the P wave on an EKG?
SA node
What is tachycardia
heart rate above 100 bpm
What is bradycardia
heart rate below 60 bpm
What part of the brain helps the SA node to fire at only 60-80bpm
medulla oblongata and vagus nerve
What is the stroke volume of the heart
amount of blood pumped out by the ventricles during one heartbeat
What is the cardiac output of the heart
the amount of blood pumped out by the ventricles during one minute
What is the function of the respiratory system
collect O2 from the air and deliver it to the RBC. Also remove CO2 from blood
What are openings into the nasal cavity called?
nares
Which part of the respiratory sytem contains guard hairs to trap large particles
nares
Which part of the resp. system have musous membranes that help trap partricles and humidify the air
nasal cavity
where does air spin making it warmer?
nasal cavity
What are the three areas of the pharynx?
nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
What is the upper part of the pharynx called?
nasopharnyx
What is the middle part of the pharynx called?
Oropharynx
What is the lower part of the pharynx called?
laryngopharynx
What is the flap of cartilage that gets pressed down when you swallow to prevent choking?
epiglottis
What is the opening to the larynx called?
glottis
Which part of the resp. system contains vestibular folds and vocal cords
larynx
What closes when you swallow to prevent choking?
vestibular folds
What muscles vibrate in moving air to produce sound
vocal cords
what muscles lengthen and shorten in the resp. system
vocal cords
What is the bronchial tree of the respiratory system in order?
trachea, primary bronchi, secondary bronchi, tertiary bronchi, bronchioles, alveolar sacs, alveolus
That is the rigid tube that has C shaped rings of cartilage in the resp. system
trachea
what is the trachea lined with?
pseudostratified columnar epithelial tissue containing celia.
what helps keep the lower resp. tract clean
mucus and celia
What is the continuation of airway that lacks supportive cartilage
bronchioles
what are groups of airsacs that expand and fill with air when you breath in?
alveolar sacs
What are alveolus
individual air sacs and site of gas exchange
What cells are alveoulus made of?
simple cells?
how many alveolus per lung
1 million
What is movement of air called?
ventilation
what requires muscles to draw air in and force air out?
ventilation
What is boyles law of gases?
if the volume of a gas increases, the pressure of gas will decrease.
How do gases move?
from areas of higher pressure to lower pressure
How do we breathe?
we change the pressure inside and change pressure by changing space
What happens to the diaphram when it contracts?
it lowers
What happens to the space in the chest when the diaphram contracts?
it increases the space in the chest and lowers the pressure.
What balances the lower pressure of a diaphragm contracting?
air from outside of body moving in
What happens to diaphragm when it relaxes?
it rises
What happens to the space in the chest when the diaphragm relaxes
it decreases
What are the shape of alveolus cells?
squamous
What is the function of great alveolar cells?
repair damage and secrete surfactant
what is surfactant
mixture of phospholipids and proteins that coat alveoli
What is the function of surfactant?
lines the alveoli and prevents them from collapsing.
Which lung is larger?
the right
How many lobes does the right lung have
3
How many lobes does the left lung have
2
What is blood pressure
the amount of pressure exerted by the blood on the blood vessel wall
Where is blood pressured measured? (vein, artery, capillary??)
artery only
What is the systolic pressure?
max pressure felt in arteries
what causes systolic pressure?
heart ventricles are contracting
What causes diastoylic pressure?
when venticulars are relaxing.
What is diastoylic pressure
minimum pressure felt in arteries.
What are the 7 enzymes found in the digestive system?
salivary amylase, pepsinogen, pancreatic amylase, pancreatic lipase, trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase
What is the function of the digestive system
ingest food, move it, digestion, absorbtion, remove waste and undigested material
What is the function of the mouth?
mechanical digestion
What is the function of the tongue and cheek muscles?
guide the food to the teeth and organize
What do salivary glands contain?
saliva
What is saliva made up of?
H20 (mucus)
What is the purpose of mucus?
softens food and binds it for swallowing
what is bolus?
food and saliva
Which gland contains enzymes called salvilary Amylase?
salivary glands
What enzyme begins carbs digestion in the mouth)
salvilary amylase
What two things do salivary glands contain?
saliva and lysozyme
what is the function of lysozume?
kills bacteria
What is the tube that connects the pharynx and stomach
esophagus
what are the 4 layers to the walls of digestive organs from out to in?
serosa, muscularis externa, submucosa, muscosa
Which layer of the esophogus helps move food?
muscularis externa
Which layer of the esophogus has a lot of connective tissue?
submucosa
What is peristalsis?
synchronized contractions and relaxations that move the bolus onward.
What is the bottom of the esophogus called?
lower esophageal sphincter
What is the sphincter?
ring of smooth muscle that controls food movement between esophagus and stomach
How long does it take the stomach to empty after eating?
2-6 hours
What is the J shaped pourch in the upper L quadrant?
stomach
What is the part of stomach that is superior to the esop. attachment?
fundus
What part of stomach is immediately inside cardiac orfice?
cardia
What is the greatest part of the stomach?
body
What is the inferior end of the stomach?
pyloris
What are the 3 cells in the stomach?
mucous cells, parietal cells, chief cells
which cells in the stomach produce a large amount of mucous?
mucous cells
what is the function of muscous cells?
add to the bolus and liquify (Chyme), create thick protective layer of mucuous on the stomach lining.
What cell of the stomach secretes hydrochloric acid ?
parietal cells
What two reasons do we have HCL in the stomach?
kills most bacteria and activates the stomach enzymes
What stomach cell secretes intrinsic factor?
parietal cells
what chemical is necessary for absorbing Vit B12 in the intestines?
intrinsic factor
where does Vit B12 come from?
animals
What vitamin is used to make RBC
Vit. B12
which stomach cell secretes pepsogin?
chief cells
What happens to pepsogin in the presense of HCl?
it becomes activated and called pepsin
What controls chyme exiting the stomach?
pyloric sphincter
what is the name of the dead end pouch that hangs down from the ileocecal junction in the large intestine?
cecum
Where is the appendix located?
in the cecum
Name the parts of the large intestine?
cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, anus
What is the function of the large intestine?
holding area for undifested and waste material, reabsorbs last 10% of H20
What is the place of bacteria in the digestive system?
large intestine
What is the function of bacteria in the large intestine?
out compete more harmful bacteria and protect it, produce vit K,
what is a risk of having bacteria in the large intestine?
it can cause disease
What is the function of the urinary system?
filter the blood and eliminate waste
Name the structures of the urinary system in order
kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
What is the location for filtration and urine production?
kidneys
what are the tubes that carry urine from kidneys to bladder?
ureters
which system stores urine?
urinary bladder
what tube carries urine out of the body?
urethra
What are filtering parts of kidneys called?
nephrons
What part of the nephron brings unfiltered blood toward the nephron
afferent arterole
what is the collection of capillaries called in the nephron
glomerulars
what happens to blood as it flows through the capillaries of the glomerulars
some of it leaks out
What materials can get filtered out of the capillaries of the glomerulars?
H20, glucose, waste made of nitrogens (nitrogenous), electrolytes
What is a type of nitrogenous waste?
urea
What materials should not be filtered out of the glomerulars?
RBC, WBC, platelets, all formed elements, proteins