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144 Cards in this Set

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Each society forms a set of rules that establishes the boundaries of generally accepted behavior. These rules are often expressed in statements about how people should behave- and they fit together to form the ____ by which a society lives
moral code
A set of beliefs about right and wrong behavior within a society is called ____
ethics
describes standards or codes of behavior expected of an individual by a group (nation- organization- profession) to which an individual belongs
ethics
One characteristic of an organization that has a successful ethics program is
employees are rewarded for ethical behavior
While nearly half of all employees surveyed saw some form of ethical misconduct in 2007- less than ____ of those employees reported the misconduct to management
60%
Is a likely cause of employees feeling ?No one will ever know the difference- and if they do- so what
Management setting and holding people accountable to meet ?stretch? goals- quotas- and budgets
The step in the five-step decision-making process during which the decision maker(s) consider laws- guidelines- policies- and principles that might apply to the decision is the
evaluate and choose alternative
The step of the five-step decision process during which those who will be affected by the decision are identified is the
develop problem statement
Part of developing a good problem statement
determining who is directly affected by the problem
An approach to ethical decision making that is based on a vision of society as a community whose members work together to achieve a common set of values and goals is the
approach common good
An approach to ethical decision making that states you should choose the action or policy that has the best overall consequences for all people who are directly or indirectly affected is the ____ approach
utilitarian
As a result of increased ____- clients and service providers have built their working relationships on the expectation that they can communicate easily and instantly around the globe through electronic teleconferences- audio conferences- e-mail- and wireless devices
connectivity
As a result of improved ____- clients are able to break down their business processes into their fundamental steps and decide which they will perform themselves and which they will outsource to service providers
Modularization
Software manufacturers can file a civil suit against software pirates with penalties of up to ____ per copyrighted work
$100K
Studies have shown that around ____ of all job applicants exaggerate their accomplishments on their resume
30%
An IT professional organization whose mission is to provide superior leadership and education in information technology and that has a goal to help its members make themselves more marketable within their industry is
AITP
The obligation to protect people against any unreasonable harm or risk is
duty of care
Because there are no ____ against which to compare a software engineer?s professional behavior- he or she cannot be subject to malpractice lawsuits
uniform standards
Adherence to a professional code of ethics means that practitioners use a common set of ____ as a guideline for ethical decision making
core values and beliefs
The Societe Generale employee alleged to have committed fraud against the firm that resulted in a loss to the bank of some ?4.9 billion was
Jerome Kerviel
is a form of Trojan horse which executes when it is triggered by a specific event such as a change in a particular files- by typing a specific series of keystrokes- or by a specific time or date
Logic bomb
A ____ attack keeps the target so busy responding to a stream of automated requests that legitimate users cannot get in
distributed denial-of-service
The ____ code portion of a rootkit gets the rootkit installation started and can be easily activated by clicking on a link to a malicious Website in an e-mail or opening an infected .pdf file
dropper
Spammers can defeat the registration process of free e-mail services by launching a coordinated ____ attack that can sign up for thousands of untraceable e-mail accounts
bot
Edward Davidson ran a spamming operation out of his home that sent hundreds of thousands of spam e-mails. The header information of these e-mails concealed the actual sender from the recipient of the e-mail- a violation of the ____ Act
CAN-SPAM
The ____ is a Federal law that primarily addresses unlawful access to stored electronic communications
US Code Title 18- Part I- Chapter 121
The concept of ____ recognizes that managers must use their judgment to ensure that the cost of control does not exceed the system?s benefits or the risks involved
reasonable assurance
The ____ is a nonregulatory federal agency within the U.S. Department of Commerce whose Computer Security Division develops security standards and technology against threats to the confidentiality- integrity- and availability of information and services
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
The ____ is a partnership between the Department of Homeland Security and the public and private sectors- established in 2003 to protect the nation?s Internet infrastructure against cyber attacks
U.S. Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US_CERT)
A software and/or hardware device that monitors system and network resources and activities- and notifies network security personnel when it identifies possible intrusions from outside the organization or misuse from within the organization is a(n)
intrusion detection system (IDS)
A(n) ____ works to prevent an attack by blocking viruses- malformed packets- and other threats from getting into the protected network
intrusion prevention system (IPS)
The concept of privacy is
protected by a number of amendments in the Bill of Rights
The Supreme Court has ruled that
without a reasonable expectation of privacy there is no privacy right
The ____ is a 1970 federal act that outlines who may access your credit information- how you can find out what is in your file- how to dispute inaccurate data- and how long data is retained
Fair Credit Reporting Act
The ____ is an act that repealed a depression-era law known as Glass-Steagell. Some place partial blame for the financial crises that began in 2008 on the passage of this act and the loosening of banking restrictions
Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act
Does not cover the dissemination of information to children
The Children?s Online Privacy Protection Act
Allows surveillance- without court order- within the United States for up to a year unless the surveillance will acquire the contents of any communications to which a U.S. person is a party
The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act
The ____ prohibits unauthorized access to stored wire and electronic communications- such as the contents of e-mail in-boxes- instant messages- message boards- and social networking sites that are not readily accessible to the general public
Electronic Communications Privacy Act
Under the ____- the Federal Communications Commission responded to appeals from the Justice Department by requiring providers of Internet phone services and broadband services to ensure that their equipment accommodated the use of law enforcement wiretaps
Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act
Roving wiretap
allows the FBI to intercept any communications to or by an intelligence target without specifying the telephone line- computer- or other facility to be monitored
Fair Information Practices
The 1980 privacy guidelines set by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development are also known as the ____ and are often held up as the model of ethical treatment of consumer data for organizations to adopt
The ____ requires member countries to ensure that data transferred to non-European Union countries is protected- and bars the export of data to countries that do not have data privacy protection standards comparable to the European Union?s
European Union Data Protection Directive
The ____ seal program identifies online businesses that honor their own stated privacy protection policies
BBBOnLine
BBBOnLine
For a Web site to receive the ____ seal- its operators must demonstrate that it adheres to established privacy principles. The Web site must also agree to comply with that organization?s oversight and consumer resolution process- and pay an annual fee
The Privacy Act
prohibits the government from concealing the existence of any personal data record-keeping systems
Spyware
is keystroke-logging software downloaded to users computers without the knowledge or consent of the user
Click-stream data
information gathered by monitoring a consumers online activity
uses business rules tied to customer-supplied preferences or online behavior to determine the appropriate page views and product information to display when users visit a site
Rules-based personalized software
A screening technology called ____ helps shield users from sites that do not provide the level of privacy protection they desire
Platform for Privacy Preferences
Fourth Amendment
protects citizens from unreasonable government searches and is often invoked to protect the privacy of government employees
protects Americans rights to freedom of religion and freedom of expression
First Amendment
The Supreme Court has held that this form of speech is not protected by the First Amendment and may be forbidden by the government
Perjury
is the Supreme Court case that established a test to determine if material is obscene
Miller v. California
The problem with the Communications Decency Act was its broad language and vague definition of____- resulting in the Act being ruled unconstitutional
indecency
After a three judge federal panel ruled unanimously that the Communications Decency Act unconstitutionally restricted ____- the government appealed to the Supreme Court in a case that became known as Reno v. ACLU
free speech
Privacy advocacy groups such as the Electronic Privacy Information Center- the ACLU- and the Electronic Frontier Foundation claimed that the language in the Child Online Protection Act was overly vague and limited the ability of ____ to access material protected under the First Amendment
adults
The Children?s Internet Protection Act (CIPA)
is still in effect and has not been ruled unconstitutional
Internet filter
Organizations may direct their network administrators to install a(n) ____ on employee?s computers to prevent them from viewing sites that contain pornography or other objectionable material
Attempted to protect children from accessing pornography and other explicit material online
The Childrens Internet Protection Act
Proponents of the Children?s Internet Protection Act argued that ____schools and libraries could elect to not implement the program
they just would not receive Federal money for Internet access
Implementing the Childrens Internet Protection Act is more difficult for a library than a school because
the librarys services are open to people of all ages
In United States v. American Library Association- the Supreme Court- in a 6-3 decision- held that public libraries
must purchase filtering software and comply with all portions of the Childrens Internet Protection Act
Was a printer who was prosecuted for seditious libel because s(he) refused to reveal the names of anonymous authors whose writings were critical of the governor of new York
John Zenger
A pamphlet called ____ was published by Thomas Paine and critiqued the British monarchy and urged the colonies to become independent
Common Sense
One of the first rulings by the Supreme Court to address anonymity as an aspect of the Bill or Rights was the 1958 case
NAACP v. Alabama
Internet users who want to remain anonymous can send e-mail to a(n) ____ service- which uses software to strip the originating IP address from the message
anonymous remailer
An organizations IT department can set up a(n) ____ to prohibit employees from accessing remailers
firewall
The use of a remailer keeps communications anonymous; what is communicated- and whether it is ethical or legal
is up to the user of the remailer
John Doe lawsuit
is often filed against a defendant whose identity is temporarily unknown
In the United States- speech that is merely annoying- critical- demeaning- or offensive enjoys protection under the First Amendment. Legal recourse is possible only when that speech turns into clear threats and intimidation against
specific citizens
RIAA
trade group that represents the U.S. recording industry
Copyright and patent protection was established by
the U.S. Constitution
The concept that an idea cannot be copyrighted but the ____ of an idea can be is key to understanding copyright protection
expression
The ____ requires member governments to ensure that intellectual property rights can be enforced under their laws and that penalties for infringement are tough enough to deter further violations
TRIPS agreement
Unlike traditional copyright law- the ____ does not govern copying; instead- it focuses on the distribution of tools and software that can be used for copyright infringement as well as for legitimate non-infringing use
Digital Millennium Copyright Act
One of the tests that an invention must pass to be eligible for a patent is
it must not be obvious to a person having ordinary skill in the same field
The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that there are ____ classes of items that cannot be patented
three
Some software experts think that too many software patents are being granted- inhibiting new software development. For example- ____ obtained a patent for ?one-click shopping-? based on the use of a shopping cart purchase system for electronic commerce
Amazon.com
In 2009- ____ announced that it would donate some 3-000 patents for free use by developers to help them innovate and build new hardware and software. The announcement represented a major shift in this firm?s intellectual property strategy and was meant to encourage other patent holders to donate their own intellectual property
IBM
submarine patent
A patented process or invention that is surreptitiously included within a standard without being made public until after the standard is broadly adopted
One key advantage that trade secret law has over the use of patents and copyrights in protecting companies from losing control of their intellectual property is
there is no need to file an application or disclose the trade secret to gain protection
can qualify for trade secret protection under the Uniform Trade Secrets Act
Both computer hardware and software
A(n) ____ can read the machine language of a software program and produce the source code
decompiler
The courts have ruled in favor of using reverse engineering to enable
interoperability
Legally obtained information that is gathered to help a company gain an advantage over its rivals is called
competitive intelligence
The ____ Act enacted in 1999- allows trademark owners to challenge foreign cyber squatters who might otherwise be beyond the jurisdiction of U.S. courts
Anti-cybersquatting Consumer Protection
register domain names for famous trademarks or company names to which they have no connection
Cyber squatters
Under the ACPA- trademark holders can seek civil damages of up to ____ from cyber squatters that register their trade names or similar-sounding names as domain names
$100K
The basic premise behind open source code is that when many programmers can read- redistribute- and modify a programs code- the software
improves
The objective of quality management is to
deliver high-quality systems that meet the needs of their users
The first release of any software
rarely meets all its users expectations
A primary cause of poor software quality is that
many developers do not know how to design quality into software from the very start
The degree to which a software product meets the needs of its users is called software
Software quality
Additional features in a new release of software
make it more useful and easier to sell
Software used to control many industrial processes in an effort to reduce costs- eliminate human error- improve quality- and shorten the time it takes to manufacture products is called a(n)
process control system
There is no federal product liability law; instead- product liability is mainly covered by common law and ____ which deals with the sale of goods
The Code of Federal Regulations
When sued for negligence- a software developer is not held responsible for every product defect that could have been detected that causes customer or third-party loss
Instead
original seller is not liable if the software was materially altered after it left the sellers possession and the alteration caused the injury
Under the doctrine of supervening event
Requires several standards must be met including; the goods must be fit for the ordinary purpose for which they are used- the quality of the goods must pass without objection in the trade- and the goods must meet a fair average or middle range of quality
implied warranty of merchantability
Occurs when a seller or lessor either misrepresents the quality of a product or conceals a defect in it
Intentional misrepresentation
is a standard- proven work process that enables project team members to make controlled and orderly progress in developing high-quality software
Software development methodology
One approach to quality assurance is to test the code of a completed unit of software by actually entering test data and comparing the results to the expected results
dynamic testing
After successful unit testing- the software units are combined into an integrated subsystem that undergoes rigorous testing to ensure that the linkages among the various subsystems work successfully
integration testing
defines five levels of software development maturity and identifies the issues that are most critical to software quality and process improvement
Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI)
After an organization decides to adopt CMMI-DEC
conduct an assessment of its software development practices
When developing safety-critical software
a project safety engineer maintains a hazard log
describes how a product or process could fail to perform the desired function described by the customer
FMEA actually is should be failure mode
Of the roughly 1 billion Internet users worldwide- only _____ are estimated to live in less developed nations
20 million
A University of Chicago study found that the E-Rate program led to _____ in California students scores in the six subjects covered by the Stanford Achievement Test
no change
created a competitor to the OLPC laptop computer called the classmate
Intel
The healthcare industry invests about _____ in IT for each worker- compared with nearly $15K per worker in the banking industry
$3K
program was launched in recognition that the ability to use computers and access the Internet is a requirement for succeeding in the U.S. educational system and global workforce
Ed-Tech
Labor productivity in the United States remained relatively high despite a(n) _____ level of investment in IT from 1999 to 2004
reduced
In the United States- it is estimated that there are roughly _____ employees who telework more than eight hours per week
14 million
A 1999 report by the Institute of Medicine found that 98-000 Americans die annually due to preventable medical errors. A 2009 Consumers Union report claims that we have _____ the number of such deaths
made no change in
As part of the $787 billion 2009 economic stimulus plan- the federal government earmarked $33 billion in incentives for healthcare providers to implement government certified- interoperable _____ systems by 2015
Electronic Health Records
The two basic forms of telemedicine are
store-and-forward and live
As of 2007-what percent of all U.S. heads-of-household have never used e-mail
20%
Of the roughly 1.0 billion people around the world who earn less than $1K USD per year have access to a computer
Nearly 0%
Organizations are trying to improve IT systems and business processes that have already gone through several rounds of improvement. This makes it difficult to measure significant improvements in
productivity
In the United States- labor productivity growth has averaged about _____ percent per year for the past century
2%
In a Commonwealth Fund study of 41 Texas hospitals that treat a diverse group of patients- researchers found that when physicians electronically entered patient care instructions- there was a _____ reduction in the likelihood of death related to some procedures
50%
A 2006 Institute of Medicine report concluded that more than _____ preventable medication errors per year cost the United States about $3.5 billion annually
1.5 million
U.S. regulations make it easier for companies to hire and fire workers and to start and end business activities compared to many other industrialized nations. This flexibility makes it easier for markets to relocate workers to _____ firms and sectors
more productive
Percent of teenagers in the U.S. using social networking Web sites
65%
created its own social networking Web site- IdeaStorm- as a means for its millions of customers around the world to talk about new products- services- or improvements they would like
Dell
Of those hiring managers who use social networking Web sites to screen candidates- _____ have found information that made them drop a candidate from consideration
one-third
as a social shopping Web site that implemented a reward system for members in which they are paid a commission each time another shopper acts on their recommendations to purchase a specific item
Stuffpit
Recent survey results show that _____ of students ages 13-17 had experienced cyber bullying within the last year
43%
Estimates from Internet safety groups reveal an increasing number of cyber stalking reports with _____ reports per day for help from victims of cyber stalking
50 to 500
MySpace purged _____ sex offenders from its site over a period of two years
90-000
using real world cash to purchase virtual cash
Avatars can earn virtual money by
Online muggings and sex crimes in a virtual world can cause real life anguish for the human owners of the avatars involved. Such acts _____ rise to the level of a real life crime
may or may not
Which of the following is a true statement about the number of declared undergraduate computer science majors at doctoral-granting computer science departments
there was a decline in enrollment in spite of the forecast for an increased number of workers in this field
Which of the following statements is true about the Bureau of Labor Statistics forecast for employment between 2006 and 2014
Jobs related to networking and data communications analysis had the highest forecasted growth rate at 50 percent.
Which of these statements about contingent workers is true
A firm is likely to use contingent IT workers if it experiences pronounced fluctuations in its technical staffing needs
A situation in which two employers have actual or potential legal rights and duties with respect to the same employee or group of employees is called
coemployment relationship
Because contingent workers are already specialists in a particular task- the hiring firm does not customarily incur
training expenses
One potential disadvantage of using contingent workers is
they may not feel a strong connection to the company for which they are working
contingent workers may pass on information about corporate processes and strategies to subsequent clients who could be competitors
Another disadvantage of using contingent workers is that
lawsuit dramatically illustrated the cost of misclassifying employees and violating laws that cover compensation- taxes- unemployment insurance- and overtime
Viscaino v. Microsoft
if contractors sign an agreement indicating that they are contractors and not employees- the deciding factor is not the agreement but the degree of control the company exercises over the employees
The key lesson from Viscaino v. Microsoft is that
Before a company can apply for an H-1B visa worker
it must submit Labor Condition Statement
is an internationally recognized standard that companies can use to ensure that company data is protected in an outsourcing arrangement
Auditing Standards No. 70