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20 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Essentially a variation of the crane shot, though restricted to exterior locations. Usually taken from a helicopter.
aerial shot
Viewers' ability to distinguish between an artistic reality and external reality - their realization that the events of a fiction film are simulated.
aesthetic distance
An American studio era term signifying a major production, usually with important stars and a generous budget. Shown as the main feature on double bills.
Techniques of filmmaking that depend on the element of chance. Images are not planned out in advance but must be composed on the spot by the camera operator. Usually used in documentary situations.
aleatory techniques
A symbolic technique in which stylized characters and situations represent rather obvious ideas, such as Justice, Death, Religion, Society, and so on.
A reference to an event. person, or work of art, usually well known.
The camera's angle of view relative to the subject being photographed. A high-angle shot is photographed from above, a low-angle from below the subject.
A form of filmmaking characterized by photographing inanimate objects or individual drawings frame by frame, with each differing minutely from its predecessor. When such images are projected at the standard speed of twenty-four frames per second, the result is that the objects or drawings appear to move, and hence seem 'animated.'
The placement of the camera in such a manner as to anticipate the movement of an action before it occurs. Such setups often suggest predestination.
anticipatory camera, anticipatory setup
An original model or type after which similar things are patterned. Archetypes can be well-known story patters, universla experiences, or personality types. Myths, fairy tales, genres, and cultural heroes are generally archetypal, as are basic cycles of life and nature.
The individual responsible for designing and overseeing the construction of sets for a movie, and sometimes its interior decoration and overall visual style.
art director
The ratio between the horizontal and vertical dimensions of the screen.
aspect ratio
A theory of film popularized by the critics of the French journal Cahiers du cinema in the 1950s. The theory emphasizes the director as the major creator of film art, stamping the material with his or her own personal vision, style, and thematic obsessions.
auteur theory
The use of only that light which actually exists on location, either natural (the sun) or artificial (house lamps). When available lighting is used in interior locations, generally a sensitive fast film stock must also be used.
available lighting
From the French, meaning "in the front ranks." Those minority artists whose works are characterized by an unconventional daring and by obscure, controversial, or highly personal ideas.
When the lights for a shot derive from the rear of the set, thus throwing the foreground figures into semidarkness or silhouette.
During the studio era, standing exterior sets of such common locales as a turn-of-the-century city block, a frontier town, a European village, and so on.
back lot
A low-budget movie usually shown as the second feature during the beg-studio era in America. B-films rarely included important stars and took the form of popular genres, such as thrillers, westerns, or horror films. The major studios used them as testing grounds for the raw talent under contract.
A shot in which the camera photographs a scene from directly overhead.
bird's-eye view
A soundproof camera housing that muffles the noise of the camera's motor so sound can be clearly recorded on the set.