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36 Cards in this Set

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allegory:
an extended passage or story that has an implied meaning in addition to the stated one. Daedalus and Icarus is an allegory dealing with the results of hubris.
alliteration:
repetition of the same sound at the beginning of a group of words (usually successive words) to add emphasis.
nec mihi materia est numeris levioribus apta (Ovid, Amores 1.1.19)
et quod vides perisse perditum ducas (Catullus, 8.2)
arcebat longe Latio, multosque per annos (Aeneid 1.31)
vela dabant laeti et spumas salis aere ruebant (Aeneid 1.35)
anaphora:
the repetition of the same word at the beginning of successive clauses or lines (in Latin the case ending may change; when this happens it is called polyptoton).
dein mille altera, dein secunda centum (Catullus 5.8)
accipe, per longos tibi qui deserviat annos;
accipe, qui puranorit amarefide (Ovid, Amores 1.3.5-6)
... hic illius arma
hic currus fuit; hoc regnum dea gentibus esse (Aeneid 1.16-17)
anastrophe:
the placement of a preposition after the word that is its object.
errabant acti fatis maria omnia circum (Aeneid 1.32)
aposiopesis:
the breaking off in a middle of a sentence or thought and never resuming it. quos ego – sed motos praestat componere fluctus (Aeneid 1.135)
apostrophe:
the direct address in the second person of a person or object that usually isn’t present and that suddenly breaks off from the main narrative.
O factum male! o miselle passer! (Catullus 3.16)
Troiaque, nunc stares, Priamique arx alta, maneres. (Aeneid 2.56)
O dolor atque decus magnum rediture parenti (Aeneid 10.507)
asyndeton:
the omission of conjunctions where they would be expected.
mutuis animis amant amantur (Catullus 45.20)
... non incola montis,
non ego sum pastor, non hic armenta gregesque
horridus observo.(Ovid, Met. 1.512-14)
spem vultu simulat, premit altum corde dolorem (Aeneid 1.209)
chiasmus:
interlocking word order in a single line of the pattern abba (there may be words separating an element).
gravedo frigida et frequens tussis (Catullus 44.13)
Aoniam Marte movente lyram (Ovid, Amores 1.1.12)
longas compta puella comas (Ovid, Amores 1.1.20)
impulerit. Tantaene animis caelestibus irae? (Aeneid 1.11)
Id metuens veterisque memor Saturnia belli (Aeneid 1.23)
ecphrasis:
a digression, usually quite extensive, of a work of art, a building, or a place.
Haec vestis ... (Catullus 64.50ff.)
Est in secessu longo locus ... nympharum domus (Aeneid 1.159-68)
ellipsis:
the omission of words necessary to make a grammatically complete idea.
For example a frangit is omitted from Amores 1.9.20
hic portas frangit, at ille fores.
For example, a potuit is omitted from Aeneid 1.231.
quid meus Aeneas in te committere tantum,
quid Troes potuere... (1.231-32)
enjambment
: the continuation of an idea or thought from the end of one line to the next with a strong break after the enjambed word(s).
meas esse aliquid putare nugas
iam tum, cum ausus es unus Italorum (Catullus 1.4-5)
Arma gravi numero violeniaque bella parabam
edere, materia conveniente modis (Ovid, Amores 1.1.1-2)
Quidve dolens regina deum tot volvere casus
insignem pietate virum, tot adire labores
impulerit. (Aeneid 1.9-11)
hendiadys:
expressing an idea by the use of two nouns joined by a conjunction rather than a noun-adjective phrase or noun with genitive.
lectus et umbra = lectus umbrosus (Ovid, Amores 1.9.42)
caelumque diemque = caelum diei (Aeneid 1.88)
fortunam atque viam = fortunam viae (Aeneid 10.422)
hyperbaton:
the extended separation of two words meant to be understood together. Framing a line is a common example of this.
qui sedens adversus identidem te
spectat et audit
dulce ridentem, misero quod omnis
eripit sensus mihi... (Catullus, 51.3-6)
cunctus ob Italiam terrarum clauditur orbis (Aeneid 1.233)
infelix umero cum apparuit alto
balteus ... (Aeneid 12.941-42)
hyperbole:
exaggeration for emphasis.
da mi basia mille, deinde centum,
dein mille altera, dein secunda centum (Catullus 5.7-8)
stravimus innumeris tumidum Pythona sagittis (Ovid, Met. 1.460)
... fluctus ad sidera tollit. (Aeneid 1.103)
... insequitur cumulo praeruptus aquae mons (Aeneid 1.105)
hysteron proteron:
reversal of the natural and often chronological order of ideas or events.
ut tecum loquerer simulque ut essem (Catullus 50.13)
inclusos utero Danaos et pinea furtim
laxat claustra Sinon... (Aeneid 2.258-59)
irony:
words saying one thing but meaning another (often there is a sense of sarcasm as well).
The use of Jupiter, who constantly has affairs, as a potential marriage partner in Catullus 70.
Ovid’s use of the phrase eodem ... argento (the same silver) to describe a bowl after pointing out all the crockery was pottery (Met. 8.668 f.)
haec secum: 'Mene incepto desistere victam,
nec posse Italia Teucrorum avertere regem? (Aeneid 1.37-8)
litotes:
understatement, often involving a negative, and thus stating a positive idea by its opposite (not large = small)
Salve, nec minimo puella naso
nec bello pede nec nigris ocellis
nec longis digitis nec ore sicco
nec sane nimis elegante lingua (Catullus 43.1-4)
Post mihi non simili poena commissa luetis. (Aeneid 1.136)
quae regio in terris nostri non plena laboris? (Aeneid 1.460)
metaphor:
an implied comparison suggesting a likeness between two things.
The use of expolitum in Catullus 1 in both the literal sense of smoothing out the papyrus and the figurative sense of polishing the poetry.
The idea that the lover is a type of soldier and love a sort of war used by Ovid in Amores 1.9.
metonymy:
the use of a word to stand in the place of something suggested by it.
fluctus salis alludebant (salis = the sea; Catullus 64.67)
arma virumque cano, Troiae qui primus ab oris (arma = war, Aeneid 1.1).
vela dabant laeti et spumas salis aere ruebant (salis = the sea; aeris = the ram, prow; Aeneid 1.35)
onomatopoeia:
the use of words to imitate and suggest natural sounds; or the use of sounds to represent the sense of the words.
spumantibus exspuit (Catullus 64.155).
Interea magno misceri murmure caelum (Aeneid 1.160)
oxymoron:
the expression of a paradox by juxtaposing apparently contradictory words.
fūnera Cecropia nec fūnera portārentur (Catullus 64.83)
Agustus’ famous phrase: festina lente
personification:
giving human personality or emotion to an object.
phaselus ille, quem videtis, hospites
ait (Catullus 4.1 ff.)
pariēs, quid amantibus obstās? (Ovid, Met. 4.73)
nympharum domus: hic fessas non vincula navis (Aeneid 1.168).
Troiaque, nunc stares, Priamique arx alta, maneres. (Aeneid 2.56)
attonitae magna ora domus.' Et talia fata (Aeneid 6.53)
pleonasm:
the use of redundant and often unnecessary words, which sometimes enrich the sense of the passage.
aut moriere simul.' Sic ore effata recepit (Aeneid 2.524).
ipsa canas oro.' Finem dedit ore loquendi. (Aeneid 6.76)
polyptoton:
the repetition of the same word at the beginning of successive clauses or lines, but with changes in case ending.
protinus alter amat, fugit altera nōmen amantis (Ovid, Met. 1.474)
... hic illius arma
hic currus fuit; hoc regnum dea gentibus esse (Aeneid 1.16-17)
polysyndeton:
the excessive (and often unnecessary) use of conjunctions.
...laudat digitōsque manūsque bracchiaque et
nūdōs . . . lacertōs... (Ovid, Met. 1.500-01)
disiecitque rates evertitque aequora ventis (Aeneid 1.43)
praeteritio:
pretending that you will omit something as you make reference to it.
Obliviscor iniurias tuas, Clodia, depono memoriam doloris mei; quae abs te crudeliter in meos me absente facta sunt, neglego…, (Cicero, Pro Caelio, 50)
prolepsis:
making reference to events that will occur after the dramatic time of the poem; or anticipating the result of the action of a verb by means of adjectives or nouns or relative clauses.
ore renidenti modo, quas vaga moverat aura,
captabat plumas (Ovid, Met. 8.197-8)
incute vim ventis submersasque obrue puppes (Aeneid 1.69)
prosopopoeia:
adopting another’s character for dramatic effect.
Nihil iam in istam mulierem dico; sed, si esset aliqua dissimilis istius quae se ominibus persolgaret, quae haberet palam decretum semper aliquem, cuius in hortos, domum, Baias iure suo libidines omnium commerent, quae etiam aleret adulescentes et parsimoniam patrum suis sumptibus sustineret; si vidua libere, proterva petulanter; dives effuse, libidinosa meretricio more viveret, adulterum ego putarem si quis hanc paulo liberius salutasset? (Cicero, Pro Caelio 38)
rhetorical question:
a question which does not expect an answer.
‘bella gero. Et quisquam numen Iunonis adorat
praeterea aut supplex aris imponet honorem?’ (Aeneid 1.48-9)
simile:
a comparison often introduced by ut, similis, velut, qualis, and similar words.
ut facibus saepēs ardent ... sīc deus in flammās abiit (Ovid, Met. 1.493-5)
ut canis in vacuō leporem cum Gallicus arvō vīdit.... (Ovid, Met. 1.543)
nam velut in summo quatientem brachia Tauro
quercum ...sic domito saevum prostravit corpore Theseus
nequiquam vanis iactantem cornua ventis. (Catullus 64.105-11)
synchesis:
an interlocking word order giving the pattern abAB; it must be within a single line, but does not have to be four words in a row.
nec veterum dulcī scriptōrum carmine Mūsae (Catullus 68.7)
frīgida dēsertō tepefacet membra cubīl (Catullus 68.29)
ēlīsō percussīs āēre pennīs (Ovid, Met. 1.466)
saevae memorem Iunonis ob iram (Aeneid 1.4)
synecdoche:
the use of a part of a thing to represent the whole thing (allowing greater variety in vocabulary).
legit in exitium spicula facta meum (Ovid, Amores 1.1.22; the point of the arrow for the whole arrow)
sicine me patriis avectam, perfide, ab aris (Catullus 64.132; the altar for the whole house
tmesis:
the splitting of a compound word into two parts.
non prius ex illo flagrantia declinavit
lumina, quam cuncto concepit corpore flammam (Catullus 64.91-92)
bis medium amplexi, bis collo squamea circum
terga dati, superant capite et ceruicibus altis. (Aeneid 2.218-19)
transferred epithet
(also called enallage): the use of an epithet with another word than the one it logically belongs to, but which is connected to it in thought.
haec vestis prīscīs hominum variāta figūrīs (Catullus 64.50)
... saevae memorem Iunonis ob iram (Aeneid 1.4)
… altae moenia Romae (Aeneid 1.7)
tricolon crescens:
a group of three examples of increasing size or importance.
cogor inops, ardēns, amentī caeca furōre (Catullus 64.197)
nōn incola montis, nōn ego sum pastor, nōn hīc armenta gregēs horridus observō (Ovid, Met. 1.512-3)
zeugma:
an adjective or verb used with two words, only one of which it logically or lieterally applies to.
'...tua tē manus,' inquit, 'amorque
perdidit, infelix!' (Ovid, Met. 4.148-9)