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30 Cards in this Set

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Estrogen functons
-stimulating bone ad muscle growth
-maintaining female secondary sex characteristics
-affecting CNS activity(especially in the hypothalamus)
-maintaing functional accessory reproductive glands and organs
-initiating the repair and growth of the endometrium
3 functions of the ovaries
-Secretion of female sex hormones(estrogen and progesterone)
-Production of immature female gamete
-secretion of inhibin:feedback control of FSH
Stroma
Anterior tissues of ovary:
superficial cortex
deeper medulla
gametes are produced in cortex
Oogenesis
also called ovum production
-begins before birth
-accelerates at puberty
-ends at menopause
Ovarian Cycle
-includes monthly oogeneisis and is between puberty and menopause
Estrogen functons
-stimulating bone ad muscle growth
-maintaining female secondary sex characteristics
-affecting CNS activity(especially in the hypothalamus)
-maintaing functional accessory reproductive glands and organs
-initiating the repair and growth of the endometrium
3 functions of the ovaries
-Secretion of female sex hormones(estrogen and progesterone)
-Production of immature female gamete
-secretion of inhibin:feedback control of FSH
Stroma
Anterior tissues of ovary:
superficial cortex
deeper medulla
gametes are produced in cortex
Oogenesis
also called ovum production
-begins before birth
-accelerates at puberty
-ends at menopause
Ovarian Cycle
-includes monthly oogeneisis and is between puberty and menopause
Oogonia
Female stem cells
complete mitotic division before birth
Atresia
-is the degeneration of primordial follicles: ovaries have about 2 million primordial follicles at birth: each containg a primary oocyte
By puberty: number drops to about 400,000
Process of Oogenesis
Primary oocytes remain in suspended development until puberty:
at puberty rising FSH hormones triggers start of ovarian cycle
Each month thereafter: some primary oocytes are stimulated to develope further
Oogenesis: 2 characteristics of meiosis
-Cytoplasm of primary oocyte divides uneavenly: producing 1 ovum and 2 or 3 polar bodies
-ovary release secondary oocyte which is suspended in metaphase of meiosisII not completed until fertilization
Ovarian Follicles
-specialized structures in cortex of ovaries where oocyte growth and meiosis I occurs
Primary Oocyte
Located in outer part of the ovarian cortex: near the tunica albuginea in clusters called egg nests
Primordial Follicle
each primary oocyte in a egg nest is surrounded by follicle cells
-primary oocyte and follicle cells form a primordial follicle
The Ovarian Cycle
Is divided into the
-Follicular phase(preovulatory phase)
-luteal phase(postovulatory phase)
Step 1 of ovarian cycle
formation of primary follicles-follicle cells become granulosa cells
Zona Pellucia- region surrounding the primary oocyte contains microvili and glyocoproteins
Thecal cells- surround follicle and work with granulosa cells to produce estrogen
The ovarian cylce step 2
formation of secondary follicles
-follicular fluid accumulates between inner and outer layer of follicles
The ovarian cycle step 3
-formation of tertiary(mature Graafian) follicle: primary oocyte produces secondary oocyte and polar body secondary oocyte drifts fee in atrium
the ovarian cycle step 4
at ovulation tertiary follicle release secondary oocyte what remains is called the corpus Hemmorrhagicum(bloody body)
it develops into the corpus luteum
Step 5 ovarian cycle
formation of the corpus leutum: produces steroid hormones progestins(progesterone) from cholesterol
-Progesterone prepares uterine lining for pregnancy
step 6 ovarian cycle
if fertalization does not occur:
corpus luteum: degenrates about 12 days after ovulation fills with scar tissue and becomes corpus albicans
3 suspensory ligaments
-uterosacral ligaments:extend from uterus to sacrum prefer inferior anterior movement
-round ligaments-extend though inguiinal canal end in connective tissues of external genitalia restrict posterior movement
-lateral ligamnets
extend from base of uterus and vagina to lateral walls of the pelvis prevent inferior movement
The functional zone of the endometrium
-conatins most of the uterine glands
-contributes most of endometrial thickness
-undergoes dramatic changes in thicknes and structure during menstral cycle
The basiliar zone of the endometrium
-attaches endometrium to myometrium
contains terminal branches of tubulaqr endometrial glands
Blood supply of endometrium
-Arcuate arteries-encircle endoemetrium
-Radial arteries:supply straight arteries (to basilar zone)
supply spiral arteries(to functional zone
Menses
Menstration(process of endometrium sloughing)
-is the degredation of the functional zone and occurs in patches
-is caused by constriction of spiral arteries: reduces blood flow,oxygen and nutrients
-Weakened arterial wall ruptures:releasing blood into the connective tissue of the functional zone
degenerating tissues break away, enter the uterine lumen
-Entire functional zone is lost:through cervical os and vagina
The proliferative face(follicular phase)
-Epithial cells of uterine glands multiply and spread across endometrial surface
-restore interaty of uterine epithelium
-Further growth and vascularization completely restores functional zone
occurs at same time as: enlargement of primary and secondary follicles in ovaries
-is stimulated aand sstained by:estrogen secreted by developing ovarian follicles