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106 Cards in this Set

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gynecologist
doctor in diseases and disorders of female reproductive system
obstetrician
doctor for pregnanccy and childbirth
neonatologist
doctor diagnosing and treatment newborns
pediatrician
diagnosing and treatment of children
repro=process organisms produce more organisms
all living things die new creatures of same kind contantly be born perpetuate species
reproductive system essential keeping species alive
not essential keeping individual alive
woman's reproductive system
vulva vagina cerevix uterus fallopian tubes ovaries
female reproductive
creation and support new life 3 ways
ovaries produce eggs fertilized by sperm
urterus provides environment nourishment for growing fetus
breasts produce milk nourish growing child
female reporductive sys
hidden within pelvis produce eggs ova nourish house fertilized egg ovum give birth
external organs CLITORIS LOCATED TOWARD FRONT OF *****
vulva covering fleshy area above top of vaginal opening mons pubis
vulva****** made of mons pubis labia clitoris urinary vaginal opening
thin sheet tissue covers opening of vagina hymen*****
labia surround vaginal opening clitoris toward front of vulvasmall cylindrical structure sim to penis erectile tissue
inside labia openings to urethra
internal organs
vagina uterus fallopian tubes and ovaries
vagina 3-6" long tubular structure extends vaginal opening to uterus muscular walls lined muchous membranes female organ of copulation and birth canal connects with uterus or womb houses fetus 3"long 2"wide shaped inverted pear uterus muscular expandable organ thick walls
lower part of uterus is cervix opens to vagina upper part fallopian tubes connect uterus with ovaries produce store release eggs through fallopian tubes into uterus
ovaries produce hormones estrogen and progesterone
breasts
mammary glands inside secrete milk after childbirth
female genitalia=pudendum****EXTERNAL pudenda
outside area shields vagina called vulva=mons pubis labia clitoris urinary and vaginal openings
mons pubis
mound below abdomen fleshy fatty pad over pubic symphysis bottom of mons pubis labia lips labia majora outer labia minora inner lips
labia minora meet bottom of mons pubis cover a small sensitive bump called clitoris
befow clitoris
urethral urinary opening then vaginal opening Bartholin's glands either side of vaginal opeining produces mucus lubricates vagina
between vaginal orifice and anus
perineum
reproductive organs insides pelvic cavity protected pelvic bones ovaries fallopian tubes uterus vagina
ovaries 4-5" down from waist size of almond*** in shell egg-shaped 1-1/2to2 inches sit either side of uterus
ovaries about 1 mill ***ova eggs fluid filled sac containing single egg called follicle***
at puberty one ovum*** released from ovary each month until menopause
egg pops out of ovary enters fallopian tube*** to uterus if fertilized in fallopian tube will attach to inner lining endometrium*** develop to baby if not fertilized washed away with blood menstrual period
ovaries make hormones estrogen progesterone***
estrogen part of puberty responsible for development of breasts female body shape other changes
fallopian tubes
attacched one end to either side of uterus*** out and back from uterus 4" ***long spaghetti width in each tube passageway carry ovum from ovary to uterus
ends of fallopian tubes towards ovary = infundibulum*** extend fringed finger-like extensions fimbriae fimbria wraps around ovary
egg pops out from ovary enters fallopian tube tiny hairs in lining push egg down narrow passageway toward uterus
uterus
thick muscular walls inverted pear**** closed fist*** size wall touch strongest muscles*** in woman's body expand and contract to accommodate growing baby push out
builds up inner lining endometrium extra blood tissue fertilized egg attach to endometrium then pregnancy
egg not fertilized uterus sheds extra blood tissue goes through cervix out of vagina
uterus 3 ***layers tissue
perimetrium tough outer layer
myometrium muscular middle
endometrium inner layer
uterus slined blood vessels 3 areas
fundus*** part above entrance of fallopian tubes
corpus=body
cervix
cervix
narrow bottom part of uterus extend to vagina thick strong walls opening no wider than straw entryway to uterus***
perimetrium peri=surrounding metri=uterus um sing noun end
myometrium myo=muscle metri=uterus um sing noun end
endometrium endo=within metri=uterus um sing noun end
vagina muscular tube lined mucosa from cervix to outside of body covering vagina membranous fold tissue hymen
opening called orifice entrance outlet
vagina
expand contract accommodate tampon or baby
opening covered with hymen one or more holes
rugae anatomical fold wrinkle of viscera
cul-de-sac
blind diverticulum or pouch
cervical os opening of cervix like funnel
external os outside of cervix
mammary glands large compound sebaceous glands female mammals secrete milk
mammary glands production of milk prosess known lactation lactiferous glands mammary glands lactiferous*** duct transports milk from glands to nipples
dark pigmented area around nipple areola***
Montgomery tubercles
sebaceous glands of areola Montgomery's glands
adipose tissue fat
connective tissue cells stellate spindle shaped pervades supports binds other tissues ligaments tendons aponeuroses
mastitis
inflammation of mammary gland or udder infection mammitis
glandular tissue
cells from glands make tissue
cholecystectomy
needed for pains in stomach after eating fatty foods
sexual reproductions organs = gonads*** ovaries females testes males
sexual repro
fertilization female gamete + male ***gametes eggs + sperm
when female born has hundreds thousands*** eggs dormant until menstrual cycle pituitary gland secretes hormones stimulate ovaries produce female sex hormones estrogen*** to develop sexually
when mature release eggs menstrual cycle ovulation ***ovary discharges egg to uterus through fallopian tube not fertilized dries up and expelled 2 weeds later from uterus during menstruation blood and tissues 3-5 days
female and male intercourse within ovulation*** days fertilization can occur
1/10th ounce deposited in vagina 200-300*** million sperm swim from vagina to cervix and uterus egg in fallopian tube
week after sperm fertilizes egg becomes multi-celled blastocyst pinhead-sized hollowed ball with fluid inside now in uterus
blastocyst burrows in lining of uterus endometreum estrogen causes thickening of endo rich with blood
progesterone*** maintains thickness of endo so blastocyst attach to uterus and absorb nutrients process is implantation
cells from blastocyst*** take nourishment embryonic stage begins
inner cells from flattened circular shape called embryonic disk develops into baby
outer cells become thin membranes form around baby embryonic cells multiply thousands of times move to new positions become embryo
after 8 weeks embryo size of thumb all parts brain nerves heart blood stomach intestines smuscles skin formed
fetal stage 9 weeks after fertilization ***to birth develpment continues cells multiply move and differentiate
fetus floats in amniotic ***fluid oxygen nourishment from mom's blood via placenta disc-like structure adheres to inner lining of uterus connected to umbilical cord
umbilical cord attaches embryo navel to mother's uterus umbilical arteries in cord carry blood from fetus to placenta ***umbilical vein returns blood from placenta to fetus
amniotic fluid and membrane cushion fetus bumps jolts
pregnancy
266 days when ready for birth head presses on cervix relaxes widens ready for baby to passthrough vagina
mucus plug in cervix loosens with amniotic fluid comes through vagina when water breaks
contractions begin uterine walls contract stimulated by pituitary hormone oxytocin
contractions cause cervix widen open after several hours of widening cervix dilated enough for baby
baby pushed out of uterus through cervix and birth canal
baby's head first umbilical cord comes out with baby cut after baby is delivered
last stage of girth process delivery of placenta afterbirth separated from inner lining of uterus contracions of uterus expelled with membranes and fluids
MENstrual cycle
pahases each month
menstrual phase days 1-5 ***endometrial lining sloughed off flows from vagina
postmenstrual phase 6-12***
uterus prepares itself receive new egg hormone levels cause ovum mature
ovulatory phase 13-14&***
mature ovum released travels fallopian tube fertile phase
permenstrual phase days 15-28
if fertilizaion does not ***occur hormone levels cause endometruim breakdown preparation repeat cylcle
lining of uterus endometrium responds to hormones made in ovary
pituitary gland base of brain hormone FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE FSH causes egg flollicles in ovaryo make estrogen
estrogen causes endometrium thicken
ovulation occurs progesterone secreted by ovary causes lining of uterus become spongy
corpus luteum makes progesterone lasts for fourteen days
phen progesterone and estrogen levels fall
endometruim sheds in menstrual period
if ovulation doesn't occur ovary continues making estrogen causing endo keep thickening****
leads to late menstrual period followed irregular bleeding spotting****
can result in endometrial polyps long standing=cancer of uterus***
stress can interfere with ovulation*** temporary no treatment
long standing lack of ovulation treated with progesterone regular basis causes endo to shed
birth control pills accomplich same goal usually possible to induce ovulation reserved for attempts at pregnancy
Fibroids
30% have fibroid tumors leiomyoma myoma******** benign larger with age decrease after menopause pea size to grapefruit uterus many fibs
polyps********
endometrial polyps growths in lining of uterus common benign hang from lining like figs or flat result from long-term estrogen stimulaltion extended periods not ovulating estrogen hormones w/o progesterone
adenomyosis*******
lining of uterus grows into wall of uterus
normally when endo sheds menses blood free to drain through cervix but when lining goes into muscle some blood trapped when extensive severe cramps and heavy bleeding
walls of uterus thicken and uterus becomes enlarged
often enlarged uterus from adenomyosis misdiagnosed as fibroids
treatment of adenomyosis different from fibroids c
common error leads to inappropriate treatment ultrasound can tell if fibroids or adenomyosis
gravida number of pregnancies
para full term delivery
aborta unsuccessful births miscarriage or abortions
gravida+numbers up to 5

example gravida 1-8-1-2-1
1st digit
number of term babies 36 weeks or 2500 g or more
2nd digit
premature babies 28-36 weeks weighing between 100-2499 g
3rd digit
number of pregnancies ending in abortions spontaneous or induced before 28 weeks or less than 1000 g
4th digit
number of children alive
5th digit
number of pregnancies resulted in multiple births not commonly used
immature classification 3rd digit
babies born 20-28 weeks or weighing 500-999 g (counted as abortions)
pelvic inflammatory disease
PID oophoritis salpingitis salpingo-oophoritis salpingo-peritonitis GENERAL TERM FOR INFECTION OF LINGING OF UTERUS FALLOPIAN TUBES OR OVARIES
vulvovaginitis
inflammmation of vulva/vagina common childhood gynecological problem laundry soaps bubble baths wiping from back to front redness itching vaginal discharge overgrowth of candida teens/adults
vaginal bleedin
premenstrual girls foreign body toilet paper urethral prolapse mucous membranes of urethra protrude into vagina form mass bleeds easily injury or sexual abuse
vaginal itching
chemicals detergents infections menopause Pap smear vaginal culture biopsies determine cause
labial adhesions
adherence of labia midline infants young girls can lead urinary tract infections UTIs topical estrogen cream separate
vulvitis
inflammation of vulva
DISORDERS OF OVARIES
tumors***
rare in childhood teens ovarian teratoma benign or malignant
ovarian cysts***
noncancerous sacs fluid or semi-soled material common problem if large push on surrounding organs ab pain disappear spontaneously
ovarian torsion***
twisting of ovary uncommon ovary twisted blocks blood from flowing through blood vessels nourish ovaries
polycystic ovary syndrome***
hormonal disorder male hormones androgens ovaries enlarged develop cysts teen years obesity acne erratic menstrual periods masculine characteristics higher risk of infertility
menstrual problems
dysmenorrhea painful menorrhagia heavy oligomenorrhea missed periods
STDs****
infections diseases HIV/AIDS HPV human papilloma virus genital warts syphilis chlamydia gonorrhea herpes
endometrial cancer
cancerous growth of endometrium of uterus most common
carcinoma in situ
localized cancer growth
endometriosis
condition tissue grows on other areas of body causing pain irregular bleeding
incomplete abortion***
portion of fetal or placental material retained within uterus
spontaneous abortion***
10% pregnancies between 7-12 weeks gestation
toxic shock syndrome***
rare bacterial infection tampon left too long
abnormal menstrual periods
endometrial hyperplasia=profuse extended menstrual bleeding endometrial polyps uterine fibroids abnormal thyroid pituitary function
uterine prolapse***
falling or sliding of uterus into pelvic cavity/vaginal canal
adenomyosis***
endometriosis grows into wall of uterus
cervicitis
inflammation of cervix chemical/foreign body
cervical dysplasia***
plasia=growth disordered growth cervical intra epithelial neoplasia CIN precancerous changes of cervix
cervical erosion***
partial/complete absence squamous epithelium surface of cervix normal tissue on cervix or os mouth replaced by inflamed tissue from cervical canal red granular infected appearance
pelvic adhesions***
bands scar-like tissue form 2 surfaces inflammation from infection surgery trauma tissues bond to other tissues/organs
painful intercourse***
dyspareunia pain in pelvic area during/after intercourse men and women
PID***
pelvic inflammatory disease
infection of womb/tubes/ovaries
INFLAMMATION OVARY OOPHORITIS
RUPTURE OF OVARY OVARIORRHEXIS
FAKE PREG PSEUDOCYESIS
vaginal discharge
normally cervical glands produce clear mucus drains mixing bacteria/cells/Bartholins gland secretions
vaginal discharge
if discharge abnormal in color odor or consistency increased/decreased amount
ecopic pregnancy
implantation of fertilized egg outside uterus in fallopian tube TUBAL PREGNANCY
polysalpinx
accumulation of pus in fallopian tube***
salpingitis***
inflammation of fallopian tube
hirsutism
growth of hair unusual***
leukorrhea
vagina dischare white or yellow
multigravida
pregnant multiple times***
nullipara
never pregnant***
pyosalpinx
pus in fallopian tube***
polycystic ovary syndrome
hormone levels unbalanced cystic formation on ovaries enlargement***
primigravida
first pregnancy
primiparous
delivered one child
SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES

bacterial vaginosis BV
infection of vagina
chlamydia***
bacterium chlamydia trachomatis #1 bacterial STD
syphilis***
Bacterium Treponema pallidum can spread to heart brain nerves
gonorrhea ***
clap mucous membrane of vagina rectum eyes pain burning pus
hepatitis***
viral liver disease US world
genital herpes***
herpes simplex virus contagious
HIV human immunodeficiency virus***
immune system
HPV human papilloma virus***
genital warts genital and cervical cancer
trichomonas ***
trrich vaginal inflammation parasite Trichomonas vaginalis
A&p**
ANterior posterior repair fixes weak vginal muscle
abortion**
surgical medical end pregnancy remove placenta fetus
BTL 8** bilateral tubal ligation bilateral tubal ligation tying or without cutting tubes
cervical biopsy***
cervical punch biopsy stained iodine solution to see abnormalities tissue sampled examined
cervicectomy***
surgical removal of cervix
cold cone biopsy***
surgical presence of precancerous changes in cervix
copopexy***
surgical fixation of vagina to surrounding structure
colposcopy***
cervix is examined with coposcope for abnormalities
colporrhaphy
suturing of vagina
colposcopy
visual exam of vagina and cervix with colposcope
conization of cervix cone ***biopsy
cone-shaped segment tissue removed for biopsy
cryosurgery ***
performed freezing and destroying abnormal tissue
culdocentesis***
checks for abnormal fluid in space behind vagina cul de sac long thin needle inserted vaginal wall below uterus sample of fluid in abdominal cavity
dilation and curettage*** DandC
vaginal canal open with speculum cervixc dilated curette passed into uterine cavity scrape away endometrial tissue
endometrial ablation***
outpatient treatment for heavy bleeding
endometrium***
biopsy of endometrium used to check for disease or problems of fertility
episiotomy***
cutting perineum during labor enlarge vaginal opening
hormone replacement therapy***
HRT
meds containing female hormones estrogen progestin (synthetic progesterone) treat symptoms of menopause
hysterectomy***
surgical removal of uterus may or may not include cervix
TYPES OF HYSTERECTOMIES
vaginal hysterectomy done through vagina
total abdominal hysterectomy
through abdomen removal of uterus cervix fallopian tubes ovaries
bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy****
surgical removal fallopian tubes and ovaries
bilateral hysterosalpingo-oophorectomy***
removal uterus cervix ovaries fallopian tubes
radical hyterectomy
uterus tubes ovaries adjacent lymph nodes part of vagina treatment for cancer
hysterosalpingography
detect abnormalities in uterus and fallopian tubes
hysteropexy***
surgical fixation of uterus
hysteroscopy***
inspection of uterus telescope-like instrument hysteroscope
hysterosalpingography***
HSG uterosalpingograhy hysterogram uterotubography

x-ray of uterus fallopian tubes scontrast dye infected through cervix
Kegal exercises***
pelvic muscle exercises strengthen muscles sof pelvic floor for urinary stress incontinence men too after prostate surgery stool incontinence
laparoscopy***
camera in abdomen removal of gallbladder cholecystectomy
myomectomy***
removal of tumors fibroids and piece of muscle from womb
oophorectomy***
removal ovary
papanicolaou test ***PAP test
detects cancerous (pre)90% cervical cancers flattened squamous cells covering cervixc 10% glandular cells of cervical canal into uterus can resolve w/o treatment can develop into CIS cancer in situ
Class I normal
Class II slightly atypical cells mild changes
Class III precancerous changes
Class IV highly suggestive or early cancer
Class V conclusive for cancer
pelvic laparoscopy ***
examine treat abdomial pelvic organs less-invasive Band-Aid surgery
pelvimetry***
process measuring female pelvis childbearing purposes
salpingectomy***
removal fallopian tube
tubal ligation***
ligation of fallopian tubes prevent pregnancy
ultrasound scanning sonography
scanning technique image growing feus other internal organs
vaginoplasty
repair of vagina
BREAST PATHOLOGY TERMS
aspiration biopsy
needle into tissue withdraw fluid microscopic exam fine needle biopsy
mastectomy
removal breast tissue
mammoplasty**
repair reconstruction of breast
mammography***
radiological procedure breast tissue compressed detect malignant benign growths too small palpated normally
breast augmentation***
increase breast size
mastopexy***
lift sagging breasts
breast self-exam
self exam breasts for lumps or changes indicative of malignancy
amenorrhea
absence of menstruation during pregnancy
dysmenorrhea
difficult painful monthly flow
oligomenorrhea
reduced menstrual flow
menorrhagia
excessive menstrual flow
Mittelschmerz
ab pain midway between periods occuring at ovulation
polymenorrhea
abnormally frequent periods

PMS prementstrual syndrome