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125 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
2 characteristics of husbands and wives that have the potential to make remarriages more successful than first marriages
- redivorce rates have declined

- learned from their first marriages
The biggest source of complications for remarriages
- step children
At least 2 differences between single fathers and single mothers (other than sex)
- tend to be older

- tend to be more educated
At least 2 characteristics of a “covenant marriage”
- sign an affidavit

- pre-marital counseling
2 reasons why parenthood might be more difficult for contemporary young parents than it was for their own parents
- both parents trying to work in and out of home

- expectations of egalitarian relationships
2 examples of how the availability of more options might cause greater conflicts between husbands and wives
- one gets offered to transfer when both have jobs

- birth control & amount of kids
2 possible government solutions for the difficulties faced by young working parents
- flexible work hours to accomodate the needs of young kids

- accessible, competent, resonably priced child care
What constitutes the following approaches to child care:
• mothering approach
• parenting approach
• market approach
• mothering approach - soley the mom
• parenting approach - both parents
• market approach - caretaker
Which of these childcare approaches Hertz considers to be the most innovative
- parenting approach b/c both parents change gender roles
The meaning of the term “closed adoption”
- adoption records are sealed and the biological parents will not be known unless court odered
At least 2 reasons why adoptions were “closed”
- privacy of both parents

- to make the adopted child feel more like part of a family
The 2 American values that are in opposition regarding “closed adoption”
- health record reasons (genetic identity)

- emotional connection
The meaning of the term “transracial adoption”
- adopted child is a different race thatn adoptive parents
The 2 American values that are in opposition regarding “transracial adoption”
- stay part of their community

- no intermingling
2 major reasons that there is currently a “shortage” of adoptable white infants
- women who give birth are more likely to keep the child

- everyone wants a "white infant"
Which New Hampshire state agency is in charge of regulating adoption
- Department of Health and Human Services
Whether that agency will help adult adoptees search for their birth parents
- anonymous health records, help adoptee see if their parents wish to be found
What the term “families on the fault line” refers to
- when the economy faulters, families tremble people who live on the fault line are the most vulnerable, they have the most severe problems (dangerous position in the economy)
What structural change affected American working class families at the time that Rubin’s study was conducted
- shift from a manufacturing economy to a service and information economy (downsizing of jobs)
How lack of opportunity for white working class men affects racism
- racism is a deliberate strategy from the higher up people to take away from the structural problems
Whether most inner-city families are dysfunctional
- no, they do not fit this stereotype
Whether inner-city families usually take the expected American nuclear family form
- no, many are headed by women
The sociological/anthropological term for people who serve as honorary aunts and uncles
- fictive kin networks
Whether Newman found evidence that male relatives living apart from their children contributed money to support them
- yes, inner city fathers do
2 different forms of discrimination that mothers who work part-time may face
- less pay for women

- not enough day care options
What specific difficulties exist for part-time workers in the legal profession
- lawyers part-time still equals 35 hours a week quit
2 ways in which working part-time is less difficult for the lawyers than for other mothers who want to work part-time
- make more money so they can afford to work part-time
How many fathers in the study worked part-time, why they did so, and what happened to them
- 2 men, wanted to seek different roles but they became dissatisfied and returned to full time work
Reasons why women who worked part-time chose to work outside the home, despite conflicts and problems
- they wanted to maintain some power and control in their lives
The name of the national study that this article draws from
- National Study of the Changing Work Force
The estimated proportion of American workers who experience work-family conflict
- almost 1/2
Three types of “time” discussed in this article, and which type of “time” workers say they have the least of
- working time
- leisure time <--least
- family time
Whether men who work “very long hours” or women who work “very long hours” find they have more autonomy and flexibility, and why
- men, they tend to be in higher ranking jobs (more flexible)
Why workers with children often do not take advantage of “family friendly” policies
- b/c they can't afford it and are afraid for their careers
The 2 types of “time” that Galinsky sees as an “artificial dichotomy”
- quantity and quality
In the last 20 years: What has happened to the gap between the amount of time that mothers spend with children and the amount of time that fathers spend with children
- it has decreased
Compared with 20 years ago: Whether employed parents now spend more, less, or the same amount of time with individual children, and 2 reasons why that is the case
spend more time

- fathers are spending more time w/ their kids

- people are having less children
Whether parents now spend more, less, or the same amount of time with teenagers as they spend with younger children
- less time
Whether the majority of children currently say that they have enough time with their parents
- they say they do
Whether children with employed mothers are less likely, more likely, or just as likely to say that they have enough time with their mothers as children with unemployed mothers say they have
- just as likely to
Describe two of the major changes to the welfare system in 1996
- fewer people on welfare

- more child only cases
Know four types of images/myths/stereotypes of women on welfare and those that were most common on TV news stories from 1992-2004
- welfare queen
- free loader
- childlike mother
- structurally constrained woman
Know the average number of children women on welfare actually had from 1992-2004 and the average number of children shown in TV news stories during this period of time
- actual=2
- TV=3
Whether either individual or structural approaches to solving work-family conflict have been more common approaches in the US
- individual
At least 4 forms of flexible work solutions for parents
- job sharing
- work from home
- split shifts
- part-time
Why hospitals have been in the forefront of developing flexible work arrangements
- the majority of people working there are women (mothers) and they are more responsive to family friendly policies
Why Claire Smith, the lawyer, was able to stay home with her children
- her husband works in a lawyer firm to make money for their family
Who Lou Platt is, what changed his ideas regarding work and family, and what company he was associated with
- Hewlett-Packard, his wife died and he became a single parent of two kids
What solution was used by two women at Platt’s company in order to ease the double burden of being working mothers
- they share their job so they can each spend time with their families, one works M, T, W and the other works W, TR, F
Two important social movements that prompted greater numbers of lesbians to become mothers
- Women's Health Movement
- Civil (Gay) Rights Movement
The predominant technological route to biological parenthood for gay men
- surrogate mothers
Which households usually constitute the primary and secondary households for children raised jointly by gay and lesbian couples
- primary-lesbian
- secondary-gay
What recent sociological research shows regarding emotional adjustment of children who grow up in same sex families
- no amount of emotional problems more than heterosexual parents
Whether these studies show that children of same sex parents are more, less, or just as likely to become gay as children of heterosexual parents
- does not affect sexual orientation of children, but they are more likely to experiment
2 possible advantages that sociological researchers have found for children of same-sex parents
- flexibility w/ emotion
- flexibility to gender stereotypes
Whether gay and lesbian families are more, less, or equally likely to have a stay at home parent as compared with heterosexual families
- less likely for lesbian, more likely for gay
The name of the sociologist who Bengston describes as a pioneering influence in the study of American families
- Ernest W. Burgess
The difference between macrosocial and microsocial
- macrosocial- changes on the societal level

- microsocial- changes on the interpersonal level
The 4 general hypotheses with regard to the contemporary American family
- emergence of "modern" nuclear family form
- decline of nuclear family form
-increasing heterogeneity of family forms
-increasing importance of multigenerational bonds
At least 3 changes in the American family brought by the Industrial Revolution
- increased individualism (emphasis on nuclear, rather than extended)
- economic vs. companionship
-pyrimid to the bean pole
The specific term that Bengston uses for grandparents who are available as resources in times of need
- latent network
At least 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage of more “fluid” family forms
- advantage - more egalitarian relationships

- disadvantage - insecurity
At least 2 reasons why family demography has changed from a “pyramid” to a “beanpole”
- people are living longer
- people are having less children
At least 3 advantages and 1 disadvantage of “cosurvivorship” between generations
- help take care of the kids
- provide the economic support
- positive role model
- conflict between parents and grand parents on raising kids
What specific difficulties exist for part-time workers on the legal profession?
- even part-time is 30-40 hrs per week and there are very high expectations for lawyers
3 major findings of the study conducted by Bengston and his colleagues
- high solidarity between generations
- solidarity has been stable
- generation bias
At least 2 ways in which Generation Xers compared to the baby boomer generation in terms of “achievement orientation”
- higher motivation than parents
- similar expectations for education & occupation
What the term outmarriage refers to
- when people marry outside of their group
By what proportion the number of mixed marriages has increased in the US since 1980
- the humber has doubled
Two social characteristics that partners in mixed marriages are more likely to have than are partners in other marriages (besides race or ethnicity)
- young
- more educated
The 2 fastest growing ethnic groups in the contemporary US
- Hispanic
- Asian
Whether Asian men or Asian women are more likely to “outmarry”
- Asian women
Whether Black men or Black women are more likely to “outmarry”
- Black men
Whether poor or economically successful Hispanics are more likely to “outmarry”
- economically successful
Whether native-born or immigrant Asians are more likely to “outmarry”
- native born
The American racial group whose members are least likely to marry a member of a different racial group
- African Americans
Which race Asian Americans and African Americans who “outmarry” are most likely to marry
- white
Two contradictory ways that Asian American families are seen by critics of the family
- lack of emotional expressiveness
- group is more important than individuals
Which Asian family groups Pyke discusses in this article, and at least 2 major differences between them
-Korean and Vietnamese
At least 2 general family values emphasized in Asian families
- respect to elders
- lack of expressed love
At least 2 general American family values that conflict with those values emphasized in Asian families
- individual success rather than the group
- emotional expressiveness
At least 2 ways in which Asian children got their ideas about “normal families”
- school, friends, media
At least 2 ways in which Asian children would have liked their parents to be more “normal”
- less strict, more open minded, more emotionally close
How Asian children compared “filial care” with other Americans
- their duty to take care of their elderly parents, while American's abandon them
The 2 contradictory ways that the ideology of the “normal” American family was used by children of Asian immigrants
- glorification of ethnic practices of filial obligations
- denigration of traditional ethnic parenting
The derivations of the terms “Latino” and “Hispanic”
- Latino - Latin American groups
- Hispanic - Spanish speaking groups
The first Hispanic group to be studied by American social scientists
- Mexican immigrant families
The term for the strategy used by current researchers to challenge previous myths and assumptions regarding Latino families
- revisionist strategy
Two examples of macrostructural conditions that produce variations among Latino families
- social location
- educational opportunities
The largest Latino group in the US
- Mexicans
The Latino group with the lowest average educational attainment and largest average family size
- Mexicans and Puerto Ricans
The Latino group whose members are automatically American citizens upon birth in their native land
- Puerto Ricans
•The Latino group with the highest average income and smallest average family size
- Cuban
The Latino group that benefited from its members’ official status as “political refugees”
- Cuban
The Latino group that has immigrated to the US mainly since the 1970s, primarily as the result of dislocations created by political repression, civil wars, and economic problems
- Central Americans
The specific term for a family whose members move back and forth from the US to their native country, or whose members live partly in the US and partly in their homeland
- Transnational
How the average age of the American Latino population compares with that of the general US population
- 40% of the American Latino population is 20 years old or younger
The specific term for a family in which the parents are citizens of their former country, while the children are legal American citizens
- Binational
2 forms of diversity among African American families that are not accounted for by most studies
- regional and social
2 major kinds of influences that should be included in a “holistic approach” to studying African American families
- historical, cultural, economical
The term for incorporating people into a family who are not related by blood, marriage, or adoption
- cultural varient perspective
The name for the theoretical approach that viewed African American families as “impoverished versions of white families”
- deficit/pathology
The approach within the “cultural variant” perspective that emphasizes poverty and other socioeconomic factors
- structural approach
The approach within the “cultural variant perspective” that emphasizes African heritage
- cultural approach
Which approach to studying African American families Taylor finds most helpful
- comprehensive approach (a combination of structural and cultural)
At least 2 changes in family patterns that have proceeded more quickly and more dramatically for African American families than for White American families
- declining marriage and remarriage rates
- high levels of divorce
- higher proportion of children living in single parent households
The meanings of the following family terms, originated by Billingsley: incipient, simple, attenuated, and augmented
- incipient - couple w/o children
- simple - couple w/ children
- attenuated - single parent
- augmented - like kin, but not related
What the term “marriage squeeze” refers to with regard to African Americans
- more marriageable African American women than men
The comparative gender equality in African American families as compared with White American families
- African American families are more egalitarian
Who wrote All Our Kin
Carol Stack
What “The Flats” refers to
- the poorest section of the African American community
The methodology the author used to conduct her research
- interviewing and participant observation
Whether kin relationships among people in the book were based primarily on biological and legal standards
- kin biological and neighbors, difficulties w/ the legal system
Whether all of a woman’s children usually had the same kin networks
- matter of circumstances
Whether women were encouraged or discouraged by kin members to marry, and why
- discouraged to marry b/c they would lose their kin network
The distinction that people in the book made between the terms mother and mama
- mother - biological
- mama - kin who raise children
Whether kin members always exchanged goods or services with each other at the same time, and the implications of this
- no, in the future they are expected to repay
Whether the author believes that public assistance programs are structured to allow upward social mobility
- structured to reduce the possibility to move upward in the social scale
The proportion of American children who live below the poverty line
- 1/5
The amount of the federal minimum wage
- $5.15
According to Habitat for Humanity: Where in the US a full-time worker making minimum wage can afford a two-bedroom apartment at fair market rent
- no where!
The name of the program that replaced welfare assistance in the US, and what year it became law
- TANF 1996
At least 2 important changes that have affected American families in the past few decades
- gender roles
- women in labor market
According to class lecture, whether the American approach of relying on individual families to solve their own problems has been successful
- has not been successful
General and specific examples of at least 4 positive changes that might help American families survive in the 21st century
- men's roles in nurturing babies
- women's roles in the work force