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33 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Classic ECG finding in atrial flutter?
sawtooth p waves
what is the definition of unstable angina?
angina that is new, worsening, or occurs at rest
What would you give a diabetic patient with proteinuria who is hypertensive?
ACEi
What is Beck's triad?
tells about cardiac tamponade

1. hypotension
2. distant heart sounds
3. JVD
What drugs slow the heart rate?
CCB
Beta blockers
digoxin
amiodarone
What hypercholesterol medicine leads to flushing and pruritis?
Niacin
What does a hypertrophic obstrustive cardiomyopathy sound like?
systolic ejection murmur heard along the lateral sternal border that increases with decreased preload aka valsalva maneuver
What does a aortic insufficieny murmur sound like?
Austin Flint murmur, a diastolic, decrescendo, low-pitched, blowing murmur that is best heard standing up
What does a aortic stenosis murmur sound like?
systolic crescendo/decrescendo murmur that radiates to into the neck and increases with increased preload (squatting)
What does squatting increase?
increases preload
What does valsalva increase?
increases with increased afterload
What does a mitral regurgitation murmur sound like?
holosystolic murmur that radiates to the axilla
increases with increased afterload (handgrip maneuver)
What does a mitral stenosis murmur sound like?
diastolic murmur
mid-to-late low pitched murmur preceded by an opening snap
What is the treatment for atrial flutter and atrial fib?
If unstable cardiovert
If stable or chronic rate control with CCBs or Beta Blockers
What is the Tx for V.fib?
Immediate cardioversion
What is Dressler's syndrome?
an autoimmune reaction with fever, pericarditis, and increased ESR occuring 2-4wks post-MI
You are examining a pt and find that he has been abusing IV drugs. He has JVD and a holosystolic murmur at the left sternal border. What is the tx?
Treat existing heart failure and replace the tricuspid valve
What is the diagnostic test you should perform if you suspect someone has hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
echocardiogram***
shows a thickened left ventricular wall and outflow obstruction
What is pulsus paradoxus?
a decrease in systolic BP of >10mmHg with inspiration
seen with cardiac tamponade
What is the classic ECG finding for pericarditis?
low-voltage diffuse ST segment elevation
What is the definition of hypertension?
BP>140/90 on 3 seperate occasions 2 wks apart
What are 8 surgical correctable causes of hypertension?
renal a stenosis
coarctation of the aorta
pheochromocytoma
conn's syndrome
cushing's syndrome
unilateral renal parenchymal disease
hyperthyroidism
hyperparathyroidism
what test should you order if you suspect a person has a pusatile abdominal mass and bruit?
abdominal ultrasound and CT
You have a person who you just found has an abdominal aneurym. What size must it be for surgical repair?
>5.5cm
rapidly enlarging
symptomatic
ruptured
WHat is the tx for acute coronary syndrome?
ASA
heparin
clopidogrel
morphine
oxygen
sublingual nitro
IV beta blockers
What is metabolic syndrome?
abdominal obesity
high triglycerides
low HDL
hypertension
insulin resistance
prothrombic or proinflammatory states
What is the target level LDL for a pt with diabetes?
<70 mg/dL
What are the signs of active ischemia during stress test?
angina
ST-segment changes on EKG
decreased BP
What ECG findings are suggestive of MI?
ST-segment elevation
ST segment depression means ischemia
flattened T-waves
Q-waves
What coronary arteries are effected with:
1. anterior wall
2. inferior wall
3. posterior
4. septum
1. anterior (LAD or diagonal)
2. inferior (PDA)
3. posterior (left circumflex, oblique, RCA, marginal)
4. septum (LAD/diagonal)
A young pt with angina at rest and ST segment elevation with nl cardiac enzymes is what?
prinzmetal angina
What is the Dx test for a PE?
spiral CT with contrast
What reverses the effects of heparin?
protamine