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79 Cards in this Set

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What are experimental studies called that involve more than one IV?
Factorial designs
What advantage do factorial designs have?
They yield possible interaction effects
When one IV affects DV differently across the levels of a second IV this is called an
interaction effect
How are factorial designs symbolized?
Using shorthand notation
What is shorthand notation
way to express factorial designs using numbers
what 3 pieces of information does shorthand notation give us?
the number of variables, the number of levels of each treatment or IV, the total number of treatment conditions or groups
IF we have 2 IV with 3 levels each, how would this be written in shorthand notation
3 x 3
If we have a 3 x 3 how many levels of each variable do we have
3 for each IV
If we have a 3 x 3, how many variables do we have
2 variables
If we have a 3x3, how many different treatment combinations were used?
9
What are the Interaction effects of an experiment?
they allow to test if 2 variables or more when used in combination, produce effects that could not be seen by examining each variable in isolation
What are the Main effects?
effects that one IV has in isolation of the other (holding it constant)
Name a variable that cannot be assigned but is often treated as an IV
subject variable
Which variable is controlled or assigned by the researcher
IV
Which variable are researchers manipulating during an experiment
IV
Which type experiment generates the strongest cause and effect statements
true experiment
Name a variable that represents an alternative explanation
confounding variable
Which variable varies systematically
confounding variable
When each person in the sample has an equal chance of being assigned to one of the treatments this is what?
random assignment
These variables are not usually a problem because they vary randomly
extraneous variables
Variables such as intelligence, anxiety are called what?
hypothetical constructs
Which experiment has the least control
pre-experimental
With which type experiment can we use random assignment
true experiment
Which design uses intact groups?
quasi
part of this term means to minimize measurement error?
MAXMINCON
What type experiment is done before the actual experiment is conducted?
pilot study
Another name for within subjects design?
repeated measures
What type design involves only measuring each person once?
between subjects
how do you deal with order effects in within subjects design
counterbalance
What type design requires fewer people and is more powerful?
within subjects
What is the ability to detect an effect if one actually exists
power
Besides order effects, what is another disadvantage of within subjects design
carryover effects
Fatigue effects and practice effects are examples of what?
order effects
An attempt to control for order effects by varying the order in which subjects receive treatment is called?
counterbalancing
The group that performs an evaluation of your research before you start
IRB
What does IRB stand for?
institutional review board
You must get permission from participants before doing research in writing called
informed consent
When the study is complete you must do this to your participants
debrief
This means do no harm to your participants
nonmaleficence
This means do as much good to your participants as possible
beneficence
This means give credit where credit is due
justice
This means be true to your obligations
fidelity
The probability of making a type I error is equal to this
alpha
This means an analysis of variance
ANOVA
This is equal to a type 2 error
beta
Being able to convict a guilty man then you must have had the ability to detect an effect which is known as?
power
IF we reject the null but we should not have this is a?
type I error
IF we fail to reject the null but we should have rejected it, this is?
type 2 error
If you found a guilty man innocent, then you had lack of power or what type error?
type 2
Which test is used for only two groups
t-test
IF there are 3 or more groups, then this type test should be done
ANOVA
If you conclude that there is a relationship between things that don't exist, then it's a type? error
I
IF you failed to find something that does exist, this is what type error
type 2
Fatigue and practice are examples of what?
order effects
The primary concern of this group is to perform a risk-benefit analysis
IRB
IF a study has good control, what is controlled
confounding variables
How are order effects controlled
counterbalancing
Joe told his participants they would have to consume caffeine, but he gave them adrenaline instead. What primary ethical concern did he violate
fidelity
If participants always performed best the last time they were tested, what problem might there be?
practice effects
What is also known as your statistical significance level
alpha
What should be done before every experiment involving humans
informed consent
Unwanted explanations in a study are known as what
confounding variables
What type reliability involves giving two similar but different tests to each person
alternate forms
A test with only one question lacks what type validity
content validity
Clues in a study that reveal the true nature of the study are known as what
demand characteristics
If Joe failed to give credit to his partner in research, what primary ethical concern did he violate
justice
What type study is a combination of between and within
mixed
If a study accurately determines who will succeed in college while they are in high school, it has what type validity
predictive
What do you call a plausible but deceptive story told at the beginning of research used to disguise the true nature of the study
cover story
This has occurred if a participant's behavior changes simply becasue they know they are being studied
Hawthorne effect, reactivity
Everyone has an equal chance of being selected
simple random sample
If neither the participants nor the person collecting data know who got what in an experiment, the study would be called
double blind
A strong positive correlation between 2 versions of the same test provides evidence for this
measure of equivalence
Reactivity in an experiment may also be called this
hawthorne effect
This term means do no harm
nonmaleficence
What do you call clues in an experiment that let the participants know how they should respond
demand characteristics
This means stay true to your design
fidelity
If two or more variables combine to influence the DV in ways that neither would alone, this is present
interaction effects
The influence that a single variable has in a factorial design?
main effect