Study your flashcards anywhere!
Download the official Cram app for free >
 Shuffle
Toggle OnToggle Off
 Alphabetize
Toggle OnToggle Off
 Front First
Toggle OnToggle Off
 Both Sides
Toggle OnToggle Off
 Read
Toggle OnToggle Off
How to study your flashcards.
Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key
Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key
H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key
A key: Read text to speech.a key
79 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
What are experimental studies called that involve more than one IV?

Factorial designs


What advantage do factorial designs have?

They yield possible interaction effects


When one IV affects DV differently across the levels of a second IV this is called an

interaction effect


How are factorial designs symbolized?

Using shorthand notation


What is shorthand notation

way to express factorial designs using numbers


what 3 pieces of information does shorthand notation give us?

the number of variables, the number of levels of each treatment or IV, the total number of treatment conditions or groups


IF we have 2 IV with 3 levels each, how would this be written in shorthand notation

3 x 3


If we have a 3 x 3 how many levels of each variable do we have

3 for each IV


If we have a 3 x 3, how many variables do we have

2 variables


If we have a 3x3, how many different treatment combinations were used?

9


What are the Interaction effects of an experiment?

they allow to test if 2 variables or more when used in combination, produce effects that could not be seen by examining each variable in isolation


What are the Main effects?

effects that one IV has in isolation of the other (holding it constant)


Name a variable that cannot be assigned but is often treated as an IV

subject variable


Which variable is controlled or assigned by the researcher

IV


Which variable are researchers manipulating during an experiment

IV


Which type experiment generates the strongest cause and effect statements

true experiment


Name a variable that represents an alternative explanation

confounding variable


Which variable varies systematically

confounding variable


When each person in the sample has an equal chance of being assigned to one of the treatments this is what?

random assignment


These variables are not usually a problem because they vary randomly

extraneous variables


Variables such as intelligence, anxiety are called what?

hypothetical constructs


Which experiment has the least control

preexperimental


With which type experiment can we use random assignment

true experiment


Which design uses intact groups?

quasi


part of this term means to minimize measurement error?

MAXMINCON


What type experiment is done before the actual experiment is conducted?

pilot study


Another name for within subjects design?

repeated measures


What type design involves only measuring each person once?

between subjects


how do you deal with order effects in within subjects design

counterbalance


What type design requires fewer people and is more powerful?

within subjects


What is the ability to detect an effect if one actually exists

power


Besides order effects, what is another disadvantage of within subjects design

carryover effects


Fatigue effects and practice effects are examples of what?

order effects


An attempt to control for order effects by varying the order in which subjects receive treatment is called?

counterbalancing


The group that performs an evaluation of your research before you start

IRB


What does IRB stand for?

institutional review board


You must get permission from participants before doing research in writing called

informed consent


When the study is complete you must do this to your participants

debrief


This means do no harm to your participants

nonmaleficence


This means do as much good to your participants as possible

beneficence


This means give credit where credit is due

justice


This means be true to your obligations

fidelity


The probability of making a type I error is equal to this

alpha


This means an analysis of variance

ANOVA


This is equal to a type 2 error

beta


Being able to convict a guilty man then you must have had the ability to detect an effect which is known as?

power


IF we reject the null but we should not have this is a?

type I error


IF we fail to reject the null but we should have rejected it, this is?

type 2 error


If you found a guilty man innocent, then you had lack of power or what type error?

type 2


Which test is used for only two groups

ttest


IF there are 3 or more groups, then this type test should be done

ANOVA


If you conclude that there is a relationship between things that don't exist, then it's a type? error

I


IF you failed to find something that does exist, this is what type error

type 2


Fatigue and practice are examples of what?

order effects


The primary concern of this group is to perform a riskbenefit analysis

IRB


IF a study has good control, what is controlled

confounding variables


How are order effects controlled

counterbalancing


Joe told his participants they would have to consume caffeine, but he gave them adrenaline instead. What primary ethical concern did he violate

fidelity


If participants always performed best the last time they were tested, what problem might there be?

practice effects


What is also known as your statistical significance level

alpha


What should be done before every experiment involving humans

informed consent


Unwanted explanations in a study are known as what

confounding variables


What type reliability involves giving two similar but different tests to each person

alternate forms


A test with only one question lacks what type validity

content validity


Clues in a study that reveal the true nature of the study are known as what

demand characteristics


If Joe failed to give credit to his partner in research, what primary ethical concern did he violate

justice


What type study is a combination of between and within

mixed


If a study accurately determines who will succeed in college while they are in high school, it has what type validity

predictive


What do you call a plausible but deceptive story told at the beginning of research used to disguise the true nature of the study

cover story


This has occurred if a participant's behavior changes simply becasue they know they are being studied

Hawthorne effect, reactivity


Everyone has an equal chance of being selected

simple random sample


If neither the participants nor the person collecting data know who got what in an experiment, the study would be called

double blind


A strong positive correlation between 2 versions of the same test provides evidence for this

measure of equivalence


Reactivity in an experiment may also be called this

hawthorne effect


This term means do no harm

nonmaleficence


What do you call clues in an experiment that let the participants know how they should respond

demand characteristics


This means stay true to your design

fidelity


If two or more variables combine to influence the DV in ways that neither would alone, this is present

interaction effects


The influence that a single variable has in a factorial design?

main effect
