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77 Cards in this Set

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What advantage does science have over the other ways of acquiring knowledge
It's self-correcting
Which characteristic of the scientific method states that you must assume there is some order to the phenomenon being studied
systematic
Which characteristic of the scientific method state that research results should be free from expectations or bias
objective
What are three broad categories of research tools
tests/instruments
self-report
observation
Define deductive reasoning as it applies to research
process where theories lead to hypothesis
what is the most important issue surrounding research
validity
A good metaphor for validity in general
truthfulness
Joe wants to know if those who eat less also have lower rates of cancer. What type research should he conduct
correlational
Joe wants to know if those who eat a high calorie diet are more likely to get cancer than those who eat a low calorie diet. What type research should he do
comparative
Joe wants to know if eating fewer calories can decrease the likelihood of getting cancer. Which type of research should he conduct
experiment
qualitative research is usually_______in nature
inductive
Joe measured the same group of students multiple times over the course of 5 years to determine if their moral reasoning changed. What type of research did Joe conduct
longitudinal
Joe wants to know why people who eat fewer calories have lower rates of cancer. Which type research should Joe do.
causal comparative
Joe interviewed 20 students to determine their thoughts on the upcoming election. Which type of research should he conduct.
descriptive
Joe compared the reading comprehension levels of 10 first graders, 11 second graders, and 10 third graders. What type research did Joe conduct
cross-sectional
With which type research does each person serve as his or her own control?
single subject
Manipulation before measurement best describes which type of research
experiment
Quantitative research is usually _____in nature
deductive
Which type of research is conducted to simply test, evaluate or develop a theory
basic
Joe wants to know if Mrs. Smith's students score better on the exit exam than Mr. Jones' students. What type research should he conduct
quantitative
Name the two types of associational research
correlational comparative
Joe wants to decrease the number of students who show up late for his class. Which type of research should he conduct
applied
Joe was in an experimental study where he was exposed to every treatment condition. What type of study was he in
within subjects
Time is always a variable with which type research
longitudinal
Give another name for single subject
intra subject or baseline
Joe wants to know why Mrs Smith's students score better on the exit exam than Mr. Jones' students. What type descriptive research should he conduct
qualitative
Joe wants to know what the average rate of cancer is for Americans. What type of research should he conduct
descriptive
Name 3 ways to classify research
by design, by number of participants, by purpose, by type of data or how often participants are measured
List the 3 most common ways to collect data in the social sciences
test/measurements
self-report
observational studies
List the 3 most common types of data collected in the social sciences
observable behavior
language
physiological response
List 2 common ways to classify descriptive research
self-report
observational studies
List 2 types of observational studies
participant observation
naturalistic observation
What is the primary problem with observational studies
reactivity
How is the primary problem with self-report studies avoided
anonymity and confidentiality to avoid response bias
How is the primary problem with observational studies avoided
unobtrusive measures-one way mirror
What is the primary problem with self-report studies
response bias
List two types of descriptive research that don't neatly fall into a category
ethnographic studies
case study
Another name for a within subjects design is
repeated measures
Joe wants to know if women are late more often than men. What type of research should he conduct?
comparative
Baseline research is a form of ________research
single subject
Janet compared the math abilities of her nine-year old students to her ten-year old students. What type of study did she do?
cross sectional
Joe was in an experiment in which he received multiple treatments. What type study was he in
within subjects
Mary wants to know what people think about Janet Jackson after her performance during the Super Bowl
Qualitative
Joe want to know if allowing his employees 15 minute breaks will improve productivity. What type research should he do.
applied
Sue wants to know if skull size is related to IQ. What type research should she do
basic
What type of research is often criticized for its lack of generalizability
single subject
Joe wants to know if there is a relationship between how long a person has been employed and how often they are late for work. What type of research should he conduct
correlational
Joe wants to know how many of his employees are late for work each day. What type of research should he conduct
descriptive
Joe wants to know if allowing his employees 15 minute breaks will improve productivity. This is applied research. What type of causal research is this?
experimental
Time is of interest in what type of research design
longitudinal
Sam wants to know if the average height and weight of Americans has increased over the last ten years. What type of descriptive research should he do?
quantitative
Joe wants to know why women are late more often than men. What type research should he do
causal comparative
Name three ways to classify research
by design
by purpose
by type of data
The most common way to classify research is by
design
methodology
Which type of research is conducted in an attempt to accurately describe or measure what actually exists with respect to a single variable
descriptive
Name 3 ways to classify research according to it's design or methodology
descriptive
causal
associational
NAme three descriptive techniques
observations
tests/measurements
self-report measures
What is another name for relational research
associational
What is the average age of TSUD students is what type of research
descriptive
How are weight and blood pressure related? what type of research is this
correlation
Do women who live in the south differ than those in the north with respect to skin cancer? this is what type of research
comparative
Which type of research attempts to determine if one variable affected another
experimental
Can caffeine be used to increase reaction time? This is what type of research
experimental
Why do some teenagers smoke and others do not? What type research?
causal comparative
What do people think about the war in Iraq? What type research
descriptive
Is a person's IQ related to how much money they make? What type research
correlation
Do African and Caucasians differ in incomes? Type of research
comparative
Does smoking cause lung cancer in humans? What type research?
causal comparative
Which type of research is conducted to develop or evaluate a theory
basic
Which type of research would be conducted to determine if computers in the classroom can improve student's reading ability
applied
Gender and political preference are examples of what type data?
qualitative
Qualitative research is sometimes equated with which type research
inductive
A person's height, age and income are examples of what type data?
quantitative
Quantitative research is sometimes equated with which type research?
deductive
What is another name for single subject research
baseline designs or intra subject
Single subjects designs sometimes lack what type of validity
external
What is another name for within subjects research
repeated measures