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87 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Theory
Most logical explanation for events that occur in nature.
Law
Once a theory has passed many tests and is generally accepted it becomes a LAW.
Geology
the study of rocks
Astronomy
The study of characteristics of objects in space (planets, stars, galaxies, black holes, super nova, nebulae.)
Oceanography
The study of oceans, including their physical features and life forms.
Scientific Method
a way to solve problems in all branches of science usually followed in a specific number of steps. Purpose, research, hypothesis, experiment, analysis, conclusion, re-experiment.
Variable
The condition being tested.
Control
The ideal conditions for running an experiment.
Data
Facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis.
Fair Test
An experiment that only tests one variable at a time.
Metric System
The scientific system of measurement.
Meter
A unit of length in the Metric system. Equal to 100 centimeters.
Mass
The amount of matter in an object, usually measured in grams, kg, and mg.
Volume
The amount of space an object takes up. Liquids usually measured in liters and mL.
Weight
The measure of attraction between two objects due to gravity. Measured in Newtons
Density
mass per unit volume D=M/V
Dimensional Analysis
The method for converting one unit to another.
Refracting Telescope
uses a series of lenses to focus light. In general the larger the lens the greater the light gathering capability.
Reflecting Telescope
uses a series of mirrors to collect light. Since mirrors are used images are backwards.
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Contains both vidible and invisible light
Radio Telescope
collects radio waves which are focused onto an antenna that translates the signal into a picture.
UV Telescope
also usually found in orbit because our atmosphere blocks many UV rays, especially those from far away objects.
X-Ray Telescope
usually found in orbit around earth. These telescopes have provided info on the life cycles of stars.
Hubble Telescope
is orbiting earth and consists of several different types of telescopes. It has provided us with the most spectacular photos.
Coverting C-F
1.8(C+32)
Converting F-C
(F-32) x 0.5555
Inner Core
begins at a depth of 5150km and has a diameter of 2600km. the pressure is so great at this depth that matter exists as a solid even though the temperature is 5000 degrees Celsius. The inner core consists of iron and nickel.
Outer Core
is directly below the mantle and begins at a depth of about 2900km and is about 2250km thick. In the tradition model it is believed to be made of liquid iron and nickel. The temperature ranges between 2200 to 5000 degrees Celsius.
Mantle
is the layer directly below the crust and directly above the outer core. The mantle extends to a depth of 2900km; it makes up 68% of the earth’s mass and 80% of its volume.
Moho
imaginary line that exists on average at a depth of about 32km. It is found within the Lithosphere and separates the crust from the mantle.
Plasticity
the ability of a solid to flow.
Crust
the outermost layer of the earth. It is very thin, like a peel on a fruit. The crust is usually covered with soil or water. It consists of 3 types of rocks; igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic.
Lithosphere
includes the crust and uppermost part of the mantle. The lithosphere is broken into a number of plates, which float and move on part of the asthenosphere.
IMIC
Inner-Most-Inner-Core; This model maintains the idea of a liquid outer core and solid inner core (both consisting of iron and nickel; more iron). Within the inner core is another core consisting of crystallized iron.
Nuclear Model
developed by J. Marvin Herndon believes the earth’s core is similar to a nuclear reactor. It has been referred to as a “georeactor.” Herndon’s theory significantly changes the composition of the earth’s core. Outer core; liquid, consists of iron, sulfur, and possibly silicon. Inner core; 3 layers; nuclear core: consists of crystallized nickel silicide, sub-shell: consists of decayed fission products, sub-core: consists of uranium and plutonium.
Matter
anything that takes up space and has mass: solid, liquid, gas, plasma.
Elements
cannot be broken down into simpler forms. 114 on the periodic table. 90 occur naturally on earht and the rest are made in labs.
Atoms
building block of all matter
composed of: Neutrons; no charge, found in the nucleus, Protons; positively charged found in the nucleus, and Electrons; negatively charged found in rings that circle the nucleus.
Mixture
2 or more elements physically combined
Compound
2 or more elements chemically bonded, pure substance.
Magma
molten rock beneath the earth's surface.
Lava
molten rock above the earth's surface.
Mineral
has 5 characteristics: Naturally occuring, solid, crytalline structure, inorganic, definite chemical composition
Crystal Structures
Hexagonal, Monoclinic, Orthohombic, Cubic, Triclinic, Tetragonal, Trigonal.
Luster
the way minerals reflect light; metallic, non-metallic.
Hardness
how easily a mineral can be scratched, determined by the Mohs hardness scale
Streak
is a powder residue left behind when a mineral is rubbed across an unglazed tile.
Density/Specific Gravity
is the ratio of its weight compared with the weight of an equal volume of water. Similar to finding a minerals density D=m/v.
Cleavage
when a mineral breaks along smooth flat surfaces.
Fracture
when a mineral breaks along rough jagged surfaces.
Special Properties
some minerals possess special properties such as magnetism, radioactivity, smell, or even the ability to glow.
Ore
Minerals or combinations of minerals from which metals and nonmetal can be extracted in usable amounts.
Gemstone vs. Gem
a gemstone is a durable and beautiful mineral that can be cut and polished. AFTER it is cut and polished in can be referred to as a gem.
How can minerals form from solutions?
They can form from solutions two ways
-As water evaporates the minerals are left behind to form crystals.
-If too much of a substance is present in water than ions (charged atoms) can come together and form crystals within the solution
Silicates
a group of minerals that form most rocks. Silicates are predominately made of oxygen and silicon, which are the two most abundant elements in the earth’s crust.
Vein Minerals
Minerals that fill in cracks and fractures in rock.
Metals
Metals are minerals or elements that usually have shiny surfaces and are good conductors of heat and electricity.
Rock Cycle
is the continuous change of rocks from one type to another. There is no linear sequence!
Igneous Rocks
igneous rocks form from lava during a volcanic eruption or from magma within the earth’s crust.
Porphyritic
large mineral crystals over a background of small mineral crystals.
Glassy
glassy.... lol
Coarse Grained
mineral crystals that can be seen with the unaided eye.
Fine Grained
mineral crystals are too small to be seen by the naked eye
Andesitic
these rocks form from molten material that has similar composition to both granitic and basaltic rocks. This means it has a high content of iron, magnesium, and silicates (oxygen and silicon). The texture of these rocks are referred to as porphyritic
Granitic
are light colored and are formed from light colored molten rock which is high in silica, SiO2. Coarse Grained.
Basaltic
dark colored rocks that form from dark colored lava, which has a high content of iron and magnesium. The dark colored lava is runny and flows freely. Fine grained.
Sedimentary Rock
rock formed from sediments
Detrital/Clastic
made from the fragments of a previously existing rock. Detrital rocks are broken down into categories based on the particle size of their composition.
Conglemerates/Breccia
made of pebbles or gravel that have been cemented together. If the pebbles are rounded it is a conglomerate. If the particles have sharp angles like gravel, it is breccia.
Chemical
made of solutions which have minerals dissolved in them. These rocks can be created when a sea or lake evaporates leaving behind mineral deposits. These types of sedimentary rocks can also form within a solution.
Organic
are formed from material that was once living, like shells and plant material
Metamorphic Rock
Pre-Existing rocks undergo a change due to heat, pressure, or chemical reaction.
Foliated
has parallel layers or bands
Non-foliated
metamorphic rocks that do not have layers or bands
Extrusive Rocks
igneous rocks formed when lava cools above the earth's surface
Intrusive Rocks
igneous rocks formed when magma cools beneath the earth's surface.
Principle of Original Horizontality
states that sedimentary rocks form layers
Superposition
states that layers closer to the top are younger than layers near the bottom
Uniformitarianism
states that things that occur in nature are the same presently as they were in the past.
Lithification
the process of sediments becoming sedimentary rocks through compaction and cementation.
James Hutton
discovered the rock cycle
Stratigraphy
the idea that there are different layers of rocks. It is tied with the Principle of Original Horizontality and Superposition
Brutus De Villeroi
designed and built the USS Alligator
April 2nd, 1863
day Alligator sank
Cape Hateras, NC
where the Alligator is believed to have sunk
Technological Advancements of the Alligator
I dunno lol
Meteorology
the study of weather, climate, and other phenomena in the atmosphere