Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

87 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Most logical explanation for events that occur in nature.
Once a theory has passed many tests and is generally accepted it becomes a LAW.
the study of rocks
The study of characteristics of objects in space (planets, stars, galaxies, black holes, super nova, nebulae.)
The study of oceans, including their physical features and life forms.
Scientific Method
a way to solve problems in all branches of science usually followed in a specific number of steps. Purpose, research, hypothesis, experiment, analysis, conclusion, re-experiment.
The condition being tested.
The ideal conditions for running an experiment.
Facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis.
Fair Test
An experiment that only tests one variable at a time.
Metric System
The scientific system of measurement.
A unit of length in the Metric system. Equal to 100 centimeters.
The amount of matter in an object, usually measured in grams, kg, and mg.
The amount of space an object takes up. Liquids usually measured in liters and mL.
The measure of attraction between two objects due to gravity. Measured in Newtons
mass per unit volume D=M/V
Dimensional Analysis
The method for converting one unit to another.
Refracting Telescope
uses a series of lenses to focus light. In general the larger the lens the greater the light gathering capability.
Reflecting Telescope
uses a series of mirrors to collect light. Since mirrors are used images are backwards.
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Contains both vidible and invisible light
Radio Telescope
collects radio waves which are focused onto an antenna that translates the signal into a picture.
UV Telescope
also usually found in orbit because our atmosphere blocks many UV rays, especially those from far away objects.
X-Ray Telescope
usually found in orbit around earth. These telescopes have provided info on the life cycles of stars.
Hubble Telescope
is orbiting earth and consists of several different types of telescopes. It has provided us with the most spectacular photos.
Coverting C-F
Converting F-C
(F-32) x 0.5555
Inner Core
begins at a depth of 5150km and has a diameter of 2600km. the pressure is so great at this depth that matter exists as a solid even though the temperature is 5000 degrees Celsius. The inner core consists of iron and nickel.
Outer Core
is directly below the mantle and begins at a depth of about 2900km and is about 2250km thick. In the tradition model it is believed to be made of liquid iron and nickel. The temperature ranges between 2200 to 5000 degrees Celsius.
is the layer directly below the crust and directly above the outer core. The mantle extends to a depth of 2900km; it makes up 68% of the earth’s mass and 80% of its volume.
imaginary line that exists on average at a depth of about 32km. It is found within the Lithosphere and separates the crust from the mantle.
the ability of a solid to flow.
the outermost layer of the earth. It is very thin, like a peel on a fruit. The crust is usually covered with soil or water. It consists of 3 types of rocks; igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic.
includes the crust and uppermost part of the mantle. The lithosphere is broken into a number of plates, which float and move on part of the asthenosphere.
Inner-Most-Inner-Core; This model maintains the idea of a liquid outer core and solid inner core (both consisting of iron and nickel; more iron). Within the inner core is another core consisting of crystallized iron.
Nuclear Model
developed by J. Marvin Herndon believes the earth’s core is similar to a nuclear reactor. It has been referred to as a “georeactor.” Herndon’s theory significantly changes the composition of the earth’s core. Outer core; liquid, consists of iron, sulfur, and possibly silicon. Inner core; 3 layers; nuclear core: consists of crystallized nickel silicide, sub-shell: consists of decayed fission products, sub-core: consists of uranium and plutonium.
anything that takes up space and has mass: solid, liquid, gas, plasma.
cannot be broken down into simpler forms. 114 on the periodic table. 90 occur naturally on earht and the rest are made in labs.
building block of all matter
composed of: Neutrons; no charge, found in the nucleus, Protons; positively charged found in the nucleus, and Electrons; negatively charged found in rings that circle the nucleus.
2 or more elements physically combined
2 or more elements chemically bonded, pure substance.
molten rock beneath the earth's surface.
molten rock above the earth's surface.
has 5 characteristics: Naturally occuring, solid, crytalline structure, inorganic, definite chemical composition
Crystal Structures
Hexagonal, Monoclinic, Orthohombic, Cubic, Triclinic, Tetragonal, Trigonal.
the way minerals reflect light; metallic, non-metallic.
how easily a mineral can be scratched, determined by the Mohs hardness scale
is a powder residue left behind when a mineral is rubbed across an unglazed tile.
Density/Specific Gravity
is the ratio of its weight compared with the weight of an equal volume of water. Similar to finding a minerals density D=m/v.
when a mineral breaks along smooth flat surfaces.
when a mineral breaks along rough jagged surfaces.
Special Properties
some minerals possess special properties such as magnetism, radioactivity, smell, or even the ability to glow.
Minerals or combinations of minerals from which metals and nonmetal can be extracted in usable amounts.
Gemstone vs. Gem
a gemstone is a durable and beautiful mineral that can be cut and polished. AFTER it is cut and polished in can be referred to as a gem.
How can minerals form from solutions?
They can form from solutions two ways
-As water evaporates the minerals are left behind to form crystals.
-If too much of a substance is present in water than ions (charged atoms) can come together and form crystals within the solution
a group of minerals that form most rocks. Silicates are predominately made of oxygen and silicon, which are the two most abundant elements in the earth’s crust.
Vein Minerals
Minerals that fill in cracks and fractures in rock.
Metals are minerals or elements that usually have shiny surfaces and are good conductors of heat and electricity.
Rock Cycle
is the continuous change of rocks from one type to another. There is no linear sequence!
Igneous Rocks
igneous rocks form from lava during a volcanic eruption or from magma within the earth’s crust.
large mineral crystals over a background of small mineral crystals.
glassy.... lol
Coarse Grained
mineral crystals that can be seen with the unaided eye.
Fine Grained
mineral crystals are too small to be seen by the naked eye
these rocks form from molten material that has similar composition to both granitic and basaltic rocks. This means it has a high content of iron, magnesium, and silicates (oxygen and silicon). The texture of these rocks are referred to as porphyritic
are light colored and are formed from light colored molten rock which is high in silica, SiO2. Coarse Grained.
dark colored rocks that form from dark colored lava, which has a high content of iron and magnesium. The dark colored lava is runny and flows freely. Fine grained.
Sedimentary Rock
rock formed from sediments
made from the fragments of a previously existing rock. Detrital rocks are broken down into categories based on the particle size of their composition.
made of pebbles or gravel that have been cemented together. If the pebbles are rounded it is a conglomerate. If the particles have sharp angles like gravel, it is breccia.
made of solutions which have minerals dissolved in them. These rocks can be created when a sea or lake evaporates leaving behind mineral deposits. These types of sedimentary rocks can also form within a solution.
are formed from material that was once living, like shells and plant material
Metamorphic Rock
Pre-Existing rocks undergo a change due to heat, pressure, or chemical reaction.
has parallel layers or bands
metamorphic rocks that do not have layers or bands
Extrusive Rocks
igneous rocks formed when lava cools above the earth's surface
Intrusive Rocks
igneous rocks formed when magma cools beneath the earth's surface.
Principle of Original Horizontality
states that sedimentary rocks form layers
states that layers closer to the top are younger than layers near the bottom
states that things that occur in nature are the same presently as they were in the past.
the process of sediments becoming sedimentary rocks through compaction and cementation.
James Hutton
discovered the rock cycle
the idea that there are different layers of rocks. It is tied with the Principle of Original Horizontality and Superposition
Brutus De Villeroi
designed and built the USS Alligator
April 2nd, 1863
day Alligator sank
Cape Hateras, NC
where the Alligator is believed to have sunk
Technological Advancements of the Alligator
I dunno lol
the study of weather, climate, and other phenomena in the atmosphere