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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
SubAtomic Particles
Electrons, neutrons, protons
What is Matter?
Anything that occupies space and has mass.
What is Kinetic Energy?
Energy in action
What is Potential Energy?
Stored energy; inactive energy that has the capability to do work but is not presently doing so.
Has a central nucleus containing protons and neutrons. Nucleus is surrounded by orbiting electrons.
Positive electrical Charge
Are Neutral.
Nucleus of an Atom
Positively Charged Overall.
Bear a negative charge equal in strength to the positive charge of the proton.
Electrically neutral because the number of protons in an atom is precisely balanced by its number of electrons.
Atomic Number
Equal to the number of protons in its nucleus and is written as a subscript to the left of its atomic symbol.
Atomic Mass
Sum of Protons and Neutrons
Atomic Number
The Number of Protons
Molecular Weight
Atomic Weight x number of atoms. Example: C6 H12 O6 is 6x12 12x1 6x16 = total atomic weight.
Equal to Molecular Weight.
Charged Isotope with different number of Neutrons.
Valence Shell
Atom's outermost shell
Octet Rule
Rule of eights. Eight electrons in the outer (valence) shell.
Ionic Bond
Gives up electrons to another atom
Covalent Bond
Shares Electrons between atoms
0-7 on the pH scale is acidic
7 is neutral on the pH scale
7-14 on the pH scale.
a Buffer resists change in pH, usually made of of salts; stabilizes pH. Blood has buffer.
Carbon based is or was living.
Non-carbon based.
A group of molecules that include sugars and starches. Represent 1-2% of cell mass.Made of monosaccharide (one sugar) disaccharide (two sugars) or polysaccharide (many sugars).
Simple sugars.
A Fatty Acid Neutral fats, phospholipids, steroids. Plasma membrains are phospholipids.
Made up of amino acids (20 different available amino acids)
Neutral Fats (Triglycerides)
Composed of fatty acids and glycerol. Protect and insulate body organs, the major source of stored energy in the body.
Chief component of cell membranes, may participate in the transport of lipids in plasma, prevalent in nervous tissue.
Flat molecules made of four interlocking hydrocarbon rings.
Primary Structure of a Protein
Linear sequence of amino acids remembling a strand of beads. Backbone of the protein molecule.
Secondary Structure of a protein alpha helix
Resembles a Slinky toy or the coils of a telephone cord.
Secondary Structure of a protein the Beta Pleated Sheet
linked side by side to form a pleated, ribbonlike, fan structure.
Tertiary Protien Structure
a-helical or b-pleated fold upon one another to form a compact ball like or gobular molecule.
Quaternary Structure
When two or more polypeptide chains aggregate in a regular manner to form a complex protein. Hemoglobin exhibits this structural level.
Protein Catalysts; matchmakers.
Nucleic Acids
Made of nucleotides.
Adenine A
Quanine G
Cytosine C
Thymine T
Uracil U
Found in the nucleus of the cell, where it constitutes the genetic material, or genes.Two fundamental roles: replicates itself; provides instructions for building every protein in the body. Double Stranded, A,G,C, and T
Located chiefly outside the nucleus. A molecular slave of DNA. RNA carries out the orders for protein synthesis issued by DNA. Single strands A,G,C, and U. U replaces the T found in DNA. Sugar is Ribose.