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Name the 5 kingdoms of phototrophic bacteria.
1. cyanobacteria
2. proteobacteria
* purple sulfur
* purple nonsulfur
3. green filamentous
4. green sulfur
5. gram + heliobacteria
Phototrophic Bacteria:
Name it's
energy source:
e- source:
C source:
Phototrophic Bacteria:

energy source: LIGHT
e- source: REDUCED CHEMICALS
C source: CO2
Phototrophic Bacteria:

site of photosynthesis:
types of photosynthesis:
Phototrophic Bacteria:

site of photosynthesis:
*PHOTOSYNTHETIC MEMBRANE SYSTEMS
* EXTENSION OF CM
types of photosynthesis:
*ANOXYGENIC
*OXYGENIC
Phototrophic Bacteria:
Cyanobacteria -
*evolved 2.5-3bya
*fossils are stromatolites
*gave early earth O2

Name it's ecological significance:
Phototrophic Bacteria:
Cyanobacteria -

ecological significance:
PRODUCED O2-
OXY. PHOTOSYNTHESIS

FIXES CO2-
REMOVED GREENHOUSE GAS

FIXES ATM N2 PRODUCTION-
N2 LIMITING REAGENT
PREVENTS BUILDUP
RECYCLES N2 INTO BIOSPHERE
HETEROCYSTS
Phototrophic Bacteria:
Cyanobacteria -

Name it's photosynthetic pigments
Phototrophic Bacteria:
Cyanobacteria -

photosynthetic pigments:
CHLOROPHYLL A [GREEN PLANTS]

ACESSORY PIGMENTS: PHYCOBILISOMBS
PROTEINS: PHYCOBILIOPROTEINS
PHYCOCYANIN IS BLUE

BLUE-GREEN ALGAE

PHOTOSYNTHETIC MEMBRANES ARE THYLACOIDS
Phototrophic Bacteria:
Cyanobacteria -

PHOTOSYNTHETIC MEMBRANES ARE THYLACOIDS~ what are they?
Phototrophic Bacteria:
Cyanobacteria -

THYLACOID MEMBRANE RESEMBLES MEMBRANES IN CHLOROPLAST BUT HAS NO CHLOROPLAST.
Phototrophic Bacteria:
Cyanobacteria -

*Name the cell structures
Phototrophic Bacteria:
Cyanobacteria -

*Name the cell structures
HETEROCYSTS:
differiated cells that fix N2 and lack PSII (no O2)

AKINETE:
a resting spore that has poor growth conditions like darkness, desiccation, or freezing
Phototrophic Bacteria:
Cyanobacteria -
Common genera -

SPIRULINA
Phototrophic Bacteria:
Cyanobacteria -
SPIRULINA
*helical/filamentous
*cells form TRICHOMES which are a group of cells in close contact - that lie parallel
*single cell protein is alternative food
Phototrophic Bacteria:
Cyanobacteria -
Common genera -

ANABAENA & NOSTIC
Phototrophic Bacteria:
Cyanobacteria -
ANABAENA & NOSTOC:
*fix N2
*widely distributed
*heterocysts

NOSTOC= sheaths surround cells
*mats
*biofilm

ANABAENA - similar genera
Phototrophic Bacteria:
Proteobacteria

PURPLE BACTERIA is:
morphologically diverse
*anoygenic

Name its PIGMENTS:
Phototrophic Bacteria:
Proteobacteria
purple bacteria -
PIGMENTS -

*has a pigment called bacteriochlorphyll that captures and process light energy (absoubs 805-1040nm)

*CAROTENOIDS - photoprotective role
Phototrophic Bacteria:
Proteobacteria
purple bacteria -

HAS A PHOTOSYNTHETIC MEMBRANE SYSTEM AND PROKARYOTIC MEMBRANE SYSTEM NAME THEM AND THEIR ROLES
Phototrophic Bacteria:
Proteobacteria
purple bacteria -

PHOTOSYNTHETIC MEMBRANE SYSTEM
---intracytoplasmic membrane--
LOCATION OF PIGMENTS
INCREASES SURFACE AREA
ENHANCES LIGHT GATHERING
--LOW LIGHT
*HI*INTERNAL MEMBRANES
*HI*PIGMENTS
--HI LIGHT
*LO*INTERNAL MEMBRANES
*LO*PIGMENTS

------
PROKARYOTIC MEMBRANE SYSTEM
--cytoplasmic membrane
inragination--
*MEMBRANE STAKCS -
LAMELLER FORM
RESICLES
Phototrophic Bacteria:
Proteobacteria
Phototrophic Bacteria:
Proteobacteria
Phototrophic Bacteria:
Proteobacteria
Phototrophic Bacteria:
Proteobacteria
Phototrophic Bacteria:
Proteobacteria
Phototrophic Bacteria:
Proteobacteria
Name the two groups of purples
Purple sulfur
*e-source: reduced S
[hi sulfide]
Purple nonsulfur
*e-source: H2 organic, low sulfur, low sulfide
*cannot tolerate hi sulfite
Purple Sulfur

Where does it live?
Purple Sulfur
*aquatic/mud/sediments
*illuminated
*anoxic zones
*hi sulfide
What are meromictic lakes?
*permanently stratified
*dense water at bottom
-sulfide produced in the sediment
-diffuses to anoxic zone
-purple sulfurs form massive stratified blooms
*grow anaerobically with light
Purple Sulfur

Chromatium
Purple Sulfur

Chromatium
*S GRANULES W/IN CELL
*RODS/OVALS
*POLAR TUFT FLAGELLA
*LARGE
*NO GAS VESICLES
Purple Sulfur

THIOSPIRILLUM
Purple Sulfur

THIOSPIRILLUM
*SPRIRILLUM
*NO GAS VESICLES
*POLAR FLAGELLA
*S GRANULES INSIDE CELL
Purple Sulfur

ECTOTHIOHODOSPIRA
Purple Sulfur

ECTOTHIOHODOSPIRA
*SPIRILLA
*S GRANULES OUTSIDE CELL
*SOME HALOPHILIC
*INHABITING SALINE TUBES
*MARINE ENVIRONMENTS
Purple Sulfur

THIOPEDIA
Purple Sulfur

THIOPEDIA
*COCCUS
*SHEETS OF CELLS (16-32)
*GAS VESICLES
PURPLE NONSULFUR
HAS "RHODO" PREFIX
PURPLE NONSULFUR-

RHODOSPIRILLUM
-SPIRILLUM
*POLAR FLAGELLA (SMALL)

RHODOCYCLUS
-RING SHAPED

RHODOSPEUDOMONAS
-ROD
-POLAR FLAGELLA
-DIVIDES BY BUDDING
GREEN SULFUR BACTERIA
-PHOTOTROPHIC
-BACT. KINGDOM
-ANOXYGENIC

NAME SOME CHARACTERISTICS.
GREEN SULFUR BACTERIA
-PHOTOTROPHIC
-BACT. KINGDOM
-ANOXYGENIC

-E SOURCE: REDUCED S
-NONMOTILE
-STORE S GRANULES OUTSIDE CELL
-BACTERIOCHLOROPHYLLS
-PHOTOSYNTHETIC MEMBRANE SYSTEM
GREEN SULFUR BACTERIA

CHLOROSOME
*OBLONG
*LIES ALONG CM
*SITE PHOTOSYNTHESIS
*LIGHT HARVESTER
* LOW ABS LIGHT @ 705-755 NM
Green Sulfur Bacteria
Habitat:
*Aquatic (deep/conc. mud)
*Hi sulfide(base of lake)
*lo light
*tolerate high amts of S
*higher S conc. than Purple S Bact
*grow below other phototrophs in stratified lakes

Name one genera
Green Sulfur Bacteria

CHLOROBIUM:
-STRICT ANAEROBE
-STRAIGHT CURVED ROD
GREEN FILAMENTOUS BACT.
-PHOTOTROPH
-BACT. KINGDOM
-ANCIENT PHYLUM
-ANOXYGENIC
-CELL SHAPE: FILAMENTOUS
-E SOURCE: PRIMARILY H2 & ORGANIC - SOME S
-C SOURCE: CO2
-CHLOROSOMES

NAME ONE GENERA
GREEN FILAMENTOUS BACT.

CHLOROFLEXUS:
-MULTICELLULAR FILAMENTOUS
-THICK MATS IN HOT SPRINGS
GRAM + KINGDOM-- PHOTOTROPH

-RECENTLY DISCOVERED
-LOW GC GROUP
-RELATED TO CLOSTRIDIUM
-STRICT ANAEROBES
-E- SOURCE/C SOURCE: ORGANIC CMPDS
-DON'T FIX CO2
-FIXES N2
GRAM + CELLULAR CHARACTERISTICS:

-SOME PRODUCE ENDOSPORES
-USUALLY RED/BROWN IN COLOR DUE TO CATENOID/PLUROSPORENE
-ROD SHAPED WITH POINTED ENDS
-FORM BUNDLES OF 6-10 CELLS
-BUNDLES MOTILE AS A UNIT
GRAM + HABITAT

WHERE DO THEY LIVE?
GRAM + HABITAT

IN TROPICAL SOILS
LIKE RICE PATTY FIELDS
AND HELP FIX N2
GRAM + = "HELIO"
HELIOBACTER
HELIOBACILLUS
HELIOPHILUM
PHOTOTROPHS SUMMARY

WHAT IS THE DIFF. BW CYANOBACTERIA AND OTHER PHOTOSYNTHETIC BACT?
CYANOBACTERIA VS OTHER PHOTOSYN
*OXYGENIC =ANOXYGENIC
*E SOURCE-H2O =E- NOT H20
*WAVELENGTH =VARIOUS
LIGHT: 650NM WAVELENGTHS
-PHOTOSYSTEMS ''
I&II I
*PLANTS/ALGAE

*BACTERIOCHLOROPHYLL
THE SPATIAL OF PHOTOTROPHS IN A STRATIFIED LAKE SEDIMENT

TOP LAYER TO BOTTOM?
THE SPATIAL OF PHOTOTROPHS IN A STRATIFIED LAKE SEDIMENT

TOP - CYANOBACTERIA
MIDDLE - PURPLES
BOTTOM - GREENS
PHOTOTROPH NUTRIENT GRADIENTS

-LIGHT?
-O2?
-H2O?
PHOTOTROPH NUTRIENT GRADIENTS

-LIGHT: WAVELENGTHS
-O2: HIGH TOP
-H2O: HIGH BOTTOM
PHYLUM-PROTEOBACTERIA
VINEGAR BACTERIA:

NAME SOME CHARACTERISTICS
PHYLUM-PROTEOBACTERIA
VINEGAR BACTERIA:

-ROD SHAPED
-AEROBE
-OXIDASE+
-COMMERICAL PROD.
-ACETIC ACID
PHYLUM-PROTEOBACTERIA
VINEGAR BACTERIA:

VINEGAR PRODUCTION
(DRAW)
PHYLUM-PROTEOBACTERIA
VINEGAR BACTERIA:

VINEGAR PRODUCTION
-OXIDATION PROCESS
- C& E FLOW
PHYLUM-PROTEOBACTERIA
VINEGAR BACTERIA:

HABITAT

ROLE
PHYLUM-PROTEOBACTERIA
VINEGAR BACTERIA:

HABITAT:
FLOWERS/FRUITS
HONEY
BEE POLLEN

ROLE
-SPOILAGE OF BEVERAGES
:ALCOHOL PRODS
:BEER AND WINE
PHYLUM-PROTEOBACTERIA
VINEGAR BACTERIA:
GENERA-
ACETOBACTER
PHYLUM-PROTEOBACTERIA
VINEGAR BACTERIA:
GENERA-
ACETOBACTER
-PERITTRICHOUS FLAGELLA
-COMPLETE TCA
-COMPLETE OXIDATION OF ETOH

CH3CH2OH -> CO2
PHYLUM-PROTEOBACTERIA
VINEGAR BACTERIA:
GENERA-
GLUCONOBACTER
PHYLUM-PROTEOBACTERIA
VINEGAR BACTERIA:
GENERA-
GLUCONOBACTER
-POLAR FLAGELLA
-UNDEROXIDIZER
-INCOMPLETE TCA
-NO SUCCINATE DEHYDRO.

CH3CH2OH -> CH300H
ETHANOL -> ACETIC ACID
Acetobacter
A. acetii
Acetobacter
A. acetii

-ethanol agar (CaCO3)
-HAc produced
-pH drops
-CaCO3 dissolves & clearing zones
Acetobacter
A. xylinum
Acetobacter
A. xylinum

-makes cellulose
-chains secrete thru pores
-used in textile industry
-no lignin, hemicellulose
Acetobacter
A. xylinum Cultivation

2 types
Acetobacter
A. xylinum Cultivation

2 types
--Static culture
cells & cellulose mass
-surface liquid medium
-pellicle

--Skake Flask Culture
-cellulose not found
-no pellicle formation
Thermophilic/ Hyperthermic Bact.

3 temps
Thermophilic/ Hyperthermic Bact.

3 temps:
min growth temp (no growth)
opt. growth temp (max rate)
max growth temp (no growth above)
Thermophilic/ Hyperthermic Bact.
Life
Thermophilic/ Hyperthermic Bact.
Life

ASSOCIATED W/ GEOTHERMAL ACTIV.
--CONTINENTAL HOT SPRINGS
----YELLOWSTONE
--HYDROTHERMAL VENTS
----OCEAN FLOOR/COASTAL REG.

HYDROTHERMAL VENTS
--OCEAN FLOOR
---CONTINENTAL RIFTS
----TECT. PLATES MEET
--UNDERWATER HOT SPRING VOLCA.
-EMIT HYDROTHERMAL FLUID
-6 TO 380*c
--PROVIDE HEAT/MINERALS
AND INVERTERBRATE/MO LIFE
Thermophilic/ Hyperthermic Bact.

SIGNIFICANCE
Thermophilic/ Hyperthermic Bact.

SIGNIFICANCE

COMMERICALLY:
-SOURCE FOR ENZYMES
-TOLERATE HI TEMPS
-THERMAL INDUSTRIAL PROCESS

ECOL.
--NUTRIENT CYCLING

ORIGIN TO PROGENOTE SOCIETY
Thermophilic/ Hyperthermic Bact.

THERMOTOGA
Thermophilic/ Hyperthermic Bact.

THERMOTOGA
-BACT. KINGDOM/GENUS
-GROWTH RANGE: OPT GROWTH (80*c)
-THERMOPHIL/HYPER
-FERMENTATIVE-ANAEROBIC
-UNIQUE SHEATH
-UNUSUAL CW LIPIDS
(USUALLY ESTER LINKED)
*RESIST HI TEMPS
*PREVENT MELTING
Thermophilic/ Hyperthermic Bact.

THERMODESULFOBACTERIUM
Thermophilic/ Hyperthermic Bact.

THERMODESULFOBACTERIUM

-BACT. KINGDOM/GENUS
-THERMOPHILIC: OPT GROWTH (70*)
-SULFATE REDUCING
ANAEROBIC RESPIR.
SULFACE AS TEA
-ESTER LINKED LIPID CM
-FOUND AT HOT OIL RESEVOIRS
Thermophilic/ Hyperthermic Bact.

THERMOMICROBIUM
Thermophilic/ Hyperthermic Bact.
-GREEN SULF. BACT. KINGDOM

THERMOMICROBIUM

-OPT TEMP 70-75*
-THERMOPHILIC
-UNUSAL CM LIPIDS
-NO DIESTER/DIETHER LINK
**HYDROCARBONS ARE LONG CHAIN AND DIALOCHOL
-GENUS
Thermophilic/ Hyperthermic Bact.

THERMOLEPHILIUM
Thermophilic/ Hyperthermic Bact.

THERMOLEPHILIUM
-BACT. KINGDOM/GENUS
-GROWTH 55-65* (THERMOPHILE)
-C SOURCE: N-ALKANES
-C13 TO C20 CARBONS
ALIPATHIC HYDROCARBONS
SINGLE C-C BONDS
Thermophilic/ Hyperthermic Bact.

Aquifex
Thermophilic/ Hyperthermic Bact.

Aquifex
-BACT. KINGDOM
-GROWTH 60-90*C (THERMO-HYPER)
-AEROBIC/MICROAEROPHILIC
-HYDROGEN AUTOTROPHS
H2 + O2 -> H2O
-WATER MARK
-OLD BACT. LINEAGE
-DIETHER LINKED ON
THERMUS/DEINOCOCCUS

-BACT. KINGDOM
-OBLIGATE AEROBES
-HETERTROPH
-FILAMENTOUS 200 UM
-OPT G. 70*C (THERMOPHILIC)
-WIDELY DIST.
-HOT TAP WATER
THERMUS/DEINOCOCCUS

SIG: MOLECULE BIOLOGY

-DNA/ TAQ POLYMERASE
-HEAT RESISTANT
-POLYMERASE CHAIN RXN
=DNA AMPLIFICATION
-RESISTS DENATURATION
=REPEATED EXPOSURE TO HEAT
=CYCLES REQUIRE PCR
THERMUS/DEINOCOCCUS
DEINOCOCCUS

-GRAM +
-MESO/THERMOPHILIC
-RESISTS HI RADIATION
-GAMMA RADIATION
-UV LIGHT
-ISOLATED NEAR ATOMIC REACTORS
DEINOCOCCUS

-GRAM +
-MESO/THERMOPHILIC
-RESISTS HI RADIATION
-GAMMA RADIATION
-UV LIGHT
-ISOLATED NEAR ATOMIC REACTORS
THERMUS/DEINOCOCCUS

DEINOCOCCUS RADIODURANS
DEINOCOCCUS

DEINOCOCCUS RADIODURANS

-COMPLETE CW
MULTILAYERED STRUCTURE
ORNITHINE
-CARENTOIDS
RED OR PINK
SCAVENGE RADICALS
-PROTECT ENZYMES (FREE RADS)
-ENHANCED DNA REPAIR
BACTEROIDES KINGDOM

-GENUS
-GRAM -
-STRICT ANAEROBES
-FERMENTATIVE
-SACCHAROLYTIC
-CIGAR SHAPED
-CM IS SHINGOLIPIDS (RARE)
BACTEROIDES KINGDOM

HABITAT:

-GI TRACT (WARM BLOODED)
LARGE INTEST. (MOST)
30% FECES

-RUMEN
(DEER, COW, BUFFALO)

ROLE:

-NORMAL FLORA IN GI/RUMEN
-SOME CAUSE DISEASE
OPPURT. PATHOGEN
INTESTINAL WALL DISRUPTED
-AID IN DIGESTION OF FOOD
-RELEASES VITAMINS
-BY PRODUCT: VFA
BACTEROIDES KINGDOM

FLAVOBACTERIUM
BACTEROIDES KINGDOM

FLAVOBACTERIUM

-AQUATIC
-FOODS/FOOD PROCESSING PLANT
-USES ONLY GLUCOSE
(C & ENERGY SOURCE)
-COLONIES YELLOW PIGMENTED
-RARELY PATHOGENIC
EXCEPT FOR INFECT MENGITIS
PLANETOMYCES
-KINGDOM
-UNICELLULAR/FILAMENTOUS
-MANY STALKED
-INTERNAL COMPARTMENTS
-NUCLEUS
-LIFE CYCLE
-NO PG IN CW BUT HAVE PROTEIN
-AQUATIC
PLANETOMYCES

THE GENERA
PLANETOMYCES

THE GENERA
-PLANKTO (WANDERER/FLOATING)
-MYCES (FUNGUS)
-OVAL/ROUND SHAPES
-STALKS/ROSETTES
PLANETOMYCES BEKEFII
PLANETOMYCES BEKEFII

-FORMS ROSETTES
-AQUATIC
-HOLDFAST/STALKS
PLANETOMYCES GUTTACFORMIS
PLANETOMYCES GUTTACFORMIS

-FRESHWATER LAKES
-NOT CULTIVATED
-FORMS ROSETTES
-HAVE LONG SPIKES
PLANETOMYCES MARIS
PLANETOMYCES MARIS

-MARINE
-BUDDING
-STALKS -> HOLDFAST TIP
-FLAGELLA
PLANETOMYCES:

LIFE CYCLE
PLANETOMYCES:

LIFE CYCLE

DIMORPHIC:
-SWARMER CELL
FLAGELLUM
FREE SWIMMING
NO BUDDING

MOTHER CELL
VEGATIVE
STALK
HOLDFAST
BUDDING AT TIP
PLANETOMYCES:

ISOSPHAERA
PLANETOMYCES:

ISOSPHAERA
-FILAMENTOUS
-MULTILCELLULAR
-MOTILE: GLIDES
-LONG CHAINS
-NO STALK/HOLDFAST
-~100 um
-GAS VESCICLES

HABITAT:

-HOT SPRINGS (45-55*c)
-NEUTRAL/ALKALINE
THERMOPHILIC
PLANETOMYCES:

PIRELLULA
PLANETOMYCES:

PIRELLULA "LITTLE PEAR"
-FRESHWATER
-NO STALKS BUT ROSETTES
PLANETOMYCES:

GEMMATA
PLANETOMYCES:

GEMMATA
-FRESHWATER
-BUDDING
-SPHERICAL
-NO STALKS/HOLDFAST
-PUCKERS/DIMPLES
-HAVE MEMBRANE BOUND NUCLEUS
CHLAMYDIA

BACT. KINGDOM RELATED TO PLANETOMYCES
CHLAMYDIA

-INTRACELLULAR
=PARASITES
=PATHOGENS
=REPRODUCE IN HOST CELLS
-SMALL GENOME ~1000 KB
-LIMITED METABOLISM
3 GENERA
CHLAMYDIA

C. TRACHOMATIS
CHLAMYDIA

C. TRACHOMATIS
-CONJUNCTIVIS: LEADING CAUSE OF BLINDNESS IN HUMANS
-TRACHOMA
-MOST COMMON STD
-3 TO 10 MIL CASES/YR
CHLAMYDIA

LIFE CYCLE
CHLAMYDIA

LIFE CYCLE

2 CELLULAR TYPES:

ELEMENTARY BODY:
TRANSMISSION/INFECTION

RETICULATE BODY:
ULTRACELLULAR MULTIPLICATION
SPIROCHETES

-BACT. KINGDOM
-HELICAL SHAPED
~3 to 250 um in size
-CELLS FLEXIBLE MOTILE
-ENDOFLAGELLA
SPIROCHETES

ENDOFLAGELLA
-AXIAL FILAMENTS
-PERIPLASMIC SPACE
-ALWAYS EVEN #
-ANCHORED AT ONE POLE
-UNATTACHED AT OTHER POLE
-MIN 2 FLAGELLA
-MOVEMENT LIKE CORKSCREW
SPIROCHETES

ENDOFLAGELLA: MOTILITY
SPIROCHETES

ENDOFLAGELLA: MOTILITY

ADAPTATION

MOVE THRU VISCIOUS ENVIRONMENT
-HUMAN BODY

ADAPTS INCLUDE:

CELL SHAPE: BORE INTO TISSUE
ENDOFLAGELLA: NO EXTERNAL APPENDAGES/ SLOW DOWN MOVEMENT
SPIROCHETES

PHYSIOLOGY
SPIROCHETES

PHYSIOLOGY

-CHEMOHETEROTROPHS
-ANAEROBE/AEROBES
-PATHOGENS: PARASITIC
-NONPATHOGENIC
SPIROCHETES

TREPONEMA PATHDUM
SPIROCHETES

TREPONEMA PATHDUM:
-MICROAEROPHILIC
-CAUSES SYPHILIS (std)
-HUMANS
-NOT CULTIVATED VIA IN VITRO
-USES RABBIT TESTES TO STUDY
SPIROCHETES

BORRELIA BURGDORFERI
SPIROCHETES

BORRELIA BURGDORFERI
-LYME DISEASE
LYME,CT IN '75
-8,000 CASES YR
-LINEAR CHROMOSOMES
-CIRCULAR
MICROAREOPHILIC
-TICK BORNE DISEASE
SPIROCHETES

BORRELIA BURGDORFERI

TRANSMISSION
SPIROCHETES

BORRELIA BURGDORFERI

TRANSMISSION

-RESERVOIRS-RESIDES NATUR.

-DEER
-WHITE FOOTED MOUSE
-VOLES

-ARTHROPOD BORNE
-TICK GET MO VIA RESERVOIR
-GETS ON YOU -> TRANSMITS TO MO TO HUMANS VIA BITE OR FECES
SPIROCHETES

BORRELIA BURGDORFERI-

LYME DISEASE SYMTOMS
SPIROCHETES

BORRELIA BURGDORFERI-

LYME DISEASE SYMTOMS
-LARGE RED RASH - BULL'S EYE
-INFECTION SITE
-HEADACHES, CHILLS, ARTHRITIS, INTERFERES WITH CNS
SPIROCHETES

LEPTOSPIRA (FROM DOG/CAT)
SPIROCHETES

LEPTOSPIRA (FROM DOG/CAT)
-AEROBIC
-EATS LONG CHAIN OF FATTY ACIDS
ALEIC ACID
ENERGY= C
HOOKS ON BOTH ENDS
ENDOFLAGELLA 2
LEPTOSIROSIS IN HUMANS
VACCINATE - HEAT KILL PREP OF ORGANSIMS
SPIROCHETES

CRISTISPIRA
SPIROCHETES

CRISTISPIRA
-DIGESTIVE TRACT OF MOLLUSKS/CLAMS/OYSTERS
-NOT BEEN CULTIVATED
PLOTEOBACTER

HELIOBACTER
PLOTEOBACTER

HELIOBACTER
-GM -
-SPIRILIUM SHAPED
-MOTILE: CORKSCREW
-PATHOGENIC IN HUMANS/ANIM.
MICROAEROPHILIC
- LO OXY (3 TO 15%)
- HI CO2 (3 TO 10%)
PLOTEOBACTER

CAMPYLOBACTER
PLOTEOBACTER

CAMPYLOBACTER
-GASTROENTERITIS IN HUMANS
-ENTEROTOXIN- CHOLERA TOXIN
NAUSEA, AB CRAMPS, BLOODY STOOL
-TRANSMITTED VIA BAD FOOD
MEAT/WATER

AVOID BY WASHING HANDS, MEAT, UTENSILS/CUTTING BOARDS AND COOK
PLOTEOBACTER

HELIOBACTER PYLORI
PLOTEOBACTER

HELIOBACTER PYLORI
-GASTROENTERITIS
-PEPTIC ULCERS (80%)
IN STOMACH LINING
-TRANSMISSION UNKOWN IN HUMANS
PLOTEOBACTER

CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI
PLOTEOBACTER

CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI
-DIAHERRIA IN CHILD
-FROM CHICKEN/TURKEY
-RARE FROM BEEF
PROTEOBACTER

CAMPYLOBACTER FETUS
PLOTEOBACTER

CAMPYLOBACTER FETUS
-DIAHERRIA IN CHILD
-SPONT ABORTION IN SHEEP/CATTLE
-ECONOMIC LOSS TO FARMERS
PROTEOBACTERIA

N-FIXING BACTERIA
-FIX ATM N2
-UNIQUE TO PROK.
PROTEOBACTERIA

SIG:
ECO- N CYCLING
AG- SOYBEANS (120 MILL TONS OF N2 FIX/YEAR)
PROTEOBACTERIA

N-FIXING BACTERIA

2 TYPES
PROTEOBACTERIA

N-FIXING BACTERIA

2 TYPES

1. FREE LIVING
NO SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP

2. SYMBIOTIC
REQUIRES RELATIONSHIP
PROTEOBACTERIA

N-FIXING BACTERIA

1. FREE LIVING
NO SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP
----AZOTOBACTER
PROTEOBACTERIA

N-FIXING BACTERIA

FREE LIVING
NO SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP

AZOTOBACTER
-OBL. AEROBE
-LARGE CELLS
-GM -
-PLEOMORPHIC SHAPE
-RESTING CELLS OR CYSTS
PROTEOBACTERIA

N-FIXING BACTERIA

FREE LIVING
NO SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP

AZOSPIRILLUM
PROTEOBACTERIA

N-FIXING BACTERIA

FREE LIVING
NO SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP

AZOSPIRILLUM
-SPIRILLUM SHAPED
-MICROAEROPHILLIC
-AG SOILS W/ WHEAT/CORN
NOT SYMBIOT
-SOIL INOCULANT FOR COMM.
PROTEOBACTERIA
N-FIXING BACTERIA
SYMBIOTIC

LEGUMINOIS PLANTS
PROTEOBACTERIA
N-FIXING BACTERIA
SYMBIOTIC

LEGUMINOIS PLANTS
-POD FORMERS

RHIZOBIUM: PEAS, BEANS, CLOVERS

BRADYRHIZOBIUM: SOYBEAN

COMMON TO BOTH;
-INFECTION IN ROOTS
-SITE OF N2 FIXATION
-AEROBIC
-NITROGENASE PROTECTION
-IN ROOT NODULES
-CHEM MADE "LEGHEMOGLOBIN"
WHICH IS A O2 BUFFER, THAT BINDS TO FREE O2 AND LIMITS CONTACT WITH NITROGENASE
PROTEOBACTERIA
N-FIXING BACTERIA
SYMBIOTIC

GENETICS OF ROOT NODULE
PROTEOBACTERIA
N-FIXING BACTERIA
SYMBIOTIC

GENETICS OF ROOT NODULE
-RHIZOBIUM- SYMBIOSIS WITH PLASMID

1. NOD GENES
B. NIF GENES

NONLEGUMINOUS PLANT-
FRANKIA (NOT PROTEOBACT.)
WITH ALDER TREE

CYANOBACTERIA WITH AZOLLA
PROTEOBACTERIA

MAGNETOTACTIC BACT.
-MANY CELL SHAPES
-POLAR FLAGELLA
-AEROBIC, MICROAEROPHILLIC, ANAEROBIC
-FEW CULTIVATED
PROTEOBACTERIA

MAGNETOTACTIC BACT.

HABITAT:
-AQUATIC
-LIVE IN SEDIMENT-WATER
OXIC-ANOXIC TRANSITION ZONE
NUTRIENTS- O2, IRON

CELL STRUCTURE:
-MAGNETIC/IRON PARTICLES
-ENCLOSED IN MEMBRANE
IS MAGNETITIE
-FORMS MAGNETIC DIPOLE
CHEMOLITHOTROPHIC BACT
-O2 NEEDED
-AEROBIC
-OBTAINS ENERGY BY
OXIDIZED REDUCED CHEMS
UNIQUE TO PROK
-OBTAINS CARBON BY
CO2 FIXATION
AUTOTROPHIC
CHEMOLITHOTROPHIC BACT

CHEM. ENERGY/ ELECTRON SOURCE
- FE++ = FERROUS
- H2S/S* = SULFIDE/SULFUR
- H2
- NH3 = AMMONIA
CHEMOLITHOTROPHIC BACT

THIOBAC. FERROXIDANS
CHEMOLITHOTROPHIC BACT

THIOBAC. FERROXIDANS
-OXIDIZERS IRON - FERROUS
ACIDOPHILIC

FE++ REDUCED FE+++ FERRIC OXIDIZED

HABIT
-COAL REFUSE PILES

SIG
MINING - METAL
-CORROSION TO PLUMBING

ENVIRO
-RELEASE METALS
-ACID MINE DRAINAGE
CHEMOLITHOTROPHIC BACT

GALLONIONELLA FERRUGINEA
CHEMOLITHOTROPHIC BACT

GALLONIONELLA FERRUGINEA

OXIDIZE IRON
PRODUCES FILAMENTS OF IRON-OXIDE

TWISTED MASS
RED-BROWN
NATURAL SPRINGS WITH IRON
SULFUR OXIDIZING BACT.

ENERGY/E SOURCE: OXIDAZE REDUCED S

C SOURCE: FIX CO2

BY PRODUCT: H2SO4
EXAMPLE: THIOBACCILLUS THIOOXIDAN
SULFUR OXIDIZING BACT.

THIOTHRIX
SULFUR OXIDIZING BACT.

THIOTHRIX

-FILAMENTOUS
-S* GRANULES W/IN CELLS
-LIKES H2S
SULFUR OXIDIZING BACT.

THIOPLACA
SULFUR OXIDIZING BACT.

THIOPLACA

LIKE H2S, S
S GRANULES WITHIN CELLS
SHEATJH
LRG GAS VACUOLES
MARINE SEDIMENTS
SULFUR OXIDIZING BACT.

BEGGIATOA
SULFUR OXIDIZING BACT.

BEGGIATOA
LIKES H2S
MOTILITY- GLIDING
S GRANULES INSIDE CELL

LIVES IN SULFIDE RICH ENVIROS
SULFUR SPRINGS
HYDROTHERMAL VENTS
SEWAGE PLANTS
RHIZOSPHERE OF SWAMP PLANTS
CHEMOTRPHIC BACTERIA

NITRIFYING BACT.

-USED REDUCED N AS ENERGY
-NH3, NO2
-SOILS/AQUATIC

2 MAIN RXNS
CHEMOTRPHIC BACTERIA

2 MAIN RXNS-

AMONNIA OXIDIZERS

-NITROSO PREFIX
LIKE NITROSOMAS
2 NH3 -> NO2 + (H-) + (E-)

NITRITE OXIDIZERS
NITRO PREFIX
LIKE NITROBACTER

NO2 -> NO3 + H- + E-

INTERNAL MEMBRANE SYSTEMS
-ENZYMES FOR NITROFICATION PROCESS
CHEMOTRPHIC BACTERIA

NITRIFYING BACT.

SIG:
CHEMOTRPHIC BACTERIA

NITRIFYING BACT.

SIG:

ECO- N CYCLING
PREVENT NITRITE BUILDIP

AG- NH3 APPLICATION- NITRATES
- ACCUMULATE IN H20
BABY BLUE SYNDROME
S/SULFATE REDUCING BACT.

PROTEOBACT. - KINGDOM

CHARACTERISTICS:
S/SULFATE REDUCING BACT.

PROTEOBACT. - KINGDOM

CHARACTERISTICS:

-SO4-/S* = FINAL E- ACCEPTOR
-ANAEROBIC RESP.
-ORG/H2= E- DONOR
PREFER LACTIC ACID
BY PROD.= H2S- EXCRETED