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73 Cards in this Set

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Pacific Ocean
almost large as the Indian and Atlantic combined. More then half the world's water, grestest depthd ave.12,900
Atlantic Ocean
narrow, connect poles, shallowest due to seas like the Caribbean, the Mediterranean and the Gulf of Mexico
Indian Ocean
mostly in the southern hemisphere and mostly warm water, 3rd largestm right along the equortor
Zones
Upper mix zone (salt, consentration, temp.)
Themocline
a rapid decrease in temp. with depth
Halocline
change in salinity
Active continental margins
loacted at plate boundaries
Passive continental margins
not located at plate boundaries
Continental Shelf
-very gradually sloping surface extending from the continents.
-small, but contain most of the life in the sea
-Usually only about 50 miles wide, but vary greatly
-depth 500 feet
Nearly Flat
-drops only 10 ft/mile
-May have glacial valleys or riverbeds cut into them
Continental Slope
-steeper, drops at 5-25 degrees
-Slope levels out to the continental rise ( between self and abyssal plain)
- Rise grades into abyssal plain
Deep sea fans
left by water currents
Turbidity currents
underwater landslides
Abyssal plains
-are the flattest places in earth
-rough, but buried by sediments
- Plains are broken uo by seamounts and trenches
Atoll
a reef that grows around a volcano
Seamounts
underwater volcanoes
Coral Reefs
dominate the shelf in tropics
Corals
-water must remain above 65 degrees year round.
-live with algea, so also live above 150 feet in depth
Current
moving mass of water
Gyre
large cycle currents
Coriolis Effect
slight bending of currents due to the spin of the earth
Northern Hemisphere
currents bend to the right (clockwise)
Southern Hemisphere
currents bed to the left (counterclockwise)
Sargasso sea
"dead" are in the north Atlantic surrounded by currents
Upwelling
winds remove overlying warm and cold water rise
Deep Currents
from the descent of cold and/ or saltier waters (more dense)
Tides
rise and fall of oceans due to the gravitational pull of the moon and sun
-moon pulls at the water and the earth
High tide
least influence of the sun and moon
Low tides
water ulled away due to a greater influence
Spring tides
occur when the sun and moon are on the same side of the earth, results in the most extreme tides (your highest high tides, and your lowest low tides)
Neap tides
occurs whenn the sun and moon are perpendicular; results in the least tidal fluctuations
Tidal Waves
usually very small
Tidal Currents
very weak (ebb currents)
Wave
the result of winds
Crest
top
Trough
Valley
Height
crest to trough
wavelength
crest to crest ( or trough to trough)
Wave break
surf
Longshore current
wave running parallel to the shoreline; the result of wave reflections
Reflection
bouncing back of wave energy
Barrier Island
pile of sediments dposited by reflected waves
Refraction
waves are bent around an object
Diffraction
expand when passing through a channel
Rip currents
reflected waves are forces between two barriers (no rid tide or undertow)
Beach erosion
result of development too close to the beach ( right on teh beach)
Groin
traps sediment (traps sed. rocks)
Shore
point where water touches land; area between high and low tide lines
Berm
area between the shore and the first dune (above high tide)
Weather
the condition of the atmosphere at an given time
Climate
the average of weather over a long period of time
Atmosphere
layer of air surrounding the earth
Air
mostly nitrogen(79%) and oxygen(21%)
Air pressure
the weight of the air above
Troposhere
layer where we live; contains most weather
Stratosphere
3rd layer
warm layer to 30 miles; warm due to ozone layer
Mesosphere
middle layer above the statosphere and below the thermosphere

-temperatures drop again
Thermosphere
top layer
temperatures to over 1800 degrees, but not hot
Rotation
the spin of the earth, changes the side exposed to the sun every 24 hours
about 900 mph
Revolution
orbit of the earth around the sun every 365 days
about 66,000 mph
distance ave. 93 million miles
Seasons
changes in weather throughtout the year based in the amount of solar radiation
Summer Solstice
6-22 rays directly srike the Tropic of Cancer (23.5 degrees north)
Winter Solstice
12-21 rays directly strike the Tropic of Capricorn (23.5 degrees south)
Equinoxes
directly strike equator
Conduction
transfer from particle to particle
good inly in solids where particles are closer, so only where the earth meets the atmoshpere, insignificant
Convection
movement of particles themselves
only on fluids so important in oceans and atmosphere
Wind is an example
Radiation
energy in waves, do not need other particles to travel, so can travel through space
Electromagnetic Radiation
types differ in waverlenghs
Visible Light
seen with the human eye
Infrared
heat energy
Ultraviolet
tanning rays
Scattering
radiation is scattered after encounting dust and gases in the atmosphere
only way light reaches unexposed areas
Higher Altitudes
cooler b/c less air to reain heat and water