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51 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Feedforward Control
Control that allows managers to anticipate problems before they arise.
Concurrent Control
Control that gives managers immediate feedback on how efficiently inputs are being transformed into outputs so that managers can correct problems as they arise.
Feedback Control
Control that gives managers information about customers' reactions to goods and services so that corrective action can be taken if necessary.
Profit Ratios
measures how efficiently managers are using the organization's resources to generate profits.
Return on Investment
An organizations net income before taxes divided by its total assets.
Liquidity Ratios
measure how well managers have protected organizational resources to be able to meet short-term obligations.
Current Ratios
current assets divided by current liabilities.
Activity Ratios
provide measures of how well managers are creating value from organizational assets.
Inventory Turnover
measures how efficiently managers are turning over inventory so that excess inventory is not carried.
Operating Budgets
a budget that states how managers intend to use organizational resources to achieve organizational goals.
MBO - Management by objectives
A goal-setting process in which a manager and each of his or her subordinates negotiate specific goals and objectives for the subordinate to achieve and then periodically evaluate the extent to which the subordinate is achieving those goals.
Organizational Culture
The set of values, norms, standards of behavior, and common expectations that controls the ways in which individuals and groups in an organization interact with one another and work to achieve organizational goals.
Clan Control
The control exerted on individuals and groups in an organization by shared values, norms, standards of behavior, and expectations.
Top-down change
A fast, revolutionary approach to change in which top managers identify what needs to be changed and then move quickly to implement the changes throughout the organization
Bottom-up change
a gradual or evolutionary approach to change in which managers at all levels work together to develop a detailed plan for change.
The process of comparing one company's performance on specific dimensions with the performance of other, high-performing organizations.
People who notice opportunities and take responsibility for mobilizing the resources necessary to produce new and improved goods and services.
Employees of existing organizations who notice opportunities for product or service improvements and are responsible for managing the development process
The mobilization of resources to take advantage of an opportunity to provide customers with new or improved goods and services.
Psychological forces that determine the direction of a person's behavior in an organization, a person's level of effort, and a person's level of persistence.
Intrinsically Motivated Behavior
Behavior that is performed for its own sake.
Extrinsically Motivated Behavior
Behavior that is performed to acquire material or social rewards or to avoid punishment.
Pro-socially Motivated Behavior
Behavior that is performed to benefit or help others.
Anything a person gets from a job or an organization.
Anything a person contributes to his or her job or organization.
Expectancy Theory
The theory that motivation will be high when workers believe that high levels of effort lead to high performance and high performance leads to the attainment of desired outcomes.
In expectancy theory, a perception about the extent to which effort results in a certain level of performance.
A requirement or necessity for survival and well-being.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
5 basic kinds of needs: physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs.
Herzberg's Motivator-hygiene theory
A need theory that distinguishes between motivator needs and hygiene needs and proposes that motivator needs must be met for motivation and job satisfaction to be high.
Need for achievement
The extent to which an individual has a strong desire to perform challenging tasks well and to meet personal standards for excellence.
Need for affiliation
The extent to which an individual is concerned about establishing about establishing and maintaining good interpersonal relations, being liked, and having the people around him or her get along with each other.
Need for power
The extent to which an individual desires to control or influence others.
The justice, impartiality, and fairness to which all organizational members are entitled.
Lack of fairness
Underpayment Inequity
The inequity that exists when a person perceives that his or her own outcome-input ratio is less than ratio of a referent.
Overpayment Inequity
The inequity that exists when a person perceives that his or her own outcome-input ratio is greater than the ratio of a referent.
Positive Reinforcement
Giving people outcomes they desire when they perform organizationally functional behaviors.
Negative Reinforcement
Eliminating or removing undesired outcomes when people perform organizationally functional behaviors.
Administering an undesired or negative consequence when dysfunctional behavior occurs.
Vicarious Learning
Learning that occurs when the learner becomes motivated to perform a behavior by watching another person perform it and be reinforced for doing so.
The process by which an individual exerts influence over other people and inspires, motivates, and directs their activities to help achieve group or organizational goals.
An individual who is able to exert influence over other people to help achieve group or organizational goals.
Servant Leader
A leader who has a strong desire to serve and work for the benefit of others.
Legitimate Power
The authority that a manager has by virtue of his or her position in an organization's hierarchy.
Reward Power
The ability of a manager to give or withhold tangible and intangible rewards.
Coercive Power
The ability of a manager to punish others.
Expert Power
Power that is based on the special knowledge, skills, and expertise that a leader possesses.
Reference Power
Power that comes from subordinates' and coworkers' respect, admiration, and loyalty.
The expansion of employees' knowledge, tasks, and decision-making responsibilities.
An enthusiastic, self-confident leader who is able to clearly communicate his or her vision of how good things could be.