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57 Cards in this Set

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Where is the spinal cord located?
Continuation of the medulla oblongata which exits the cranium through the foramen magnum.
What part of the vertebral canal does the spinal cord rest in?
From the C1 vertebrae to approximately the L2 vertebrae in the adult.
What area is the site of epidural injections?
Between the verebrae and the dura mater where fat is located.
What area is the site of spinal taps?
Between the arachnoid and the pia mater where cerebrospinal fluid is located.
How many pairs of nerves come off of the spinal cord?
Thirty one.
Where is gray matter located in the spinal cord?
The central region.
What is contained in the gray matter of the spinal cord?
Synapses and cell bodies of neurons.
Which areas of the spinal cord contain lateral horns?
Only found in the thoracic and upper lumbar and sacral segments.
What functions are controled by the lateral horn in the thoracic and upper lumbar regions?
Sympathetic.
What functions are controlled by the lateral horns in the sacral segements?
Parasympathetic.
Where is white matter found in the spinal cord?
Area surrounding the gray matter.
What does the white matter in the spinal cord contain?
Contains the myelinated axons carrying information from the brain to the spinal cord, and from the spinal cord to the brain.
What part of the column is pertinent to sensory information about vibration?
Posterior Column
What part of the column is pertinent to sensory information about proprioception?
Posterior column
What part of the column is pertinent to sensory information about discriminated touch?
Posterior column.
What part of the column is pertinent to sensory information about pain?
Lateral column and anterior column.
What part of the column is pertinent to sensory information about temperature?
Lateral column and anterior column.
What part of the column is pertinent to voluntary motor information?
Lateral column.
What part of the column is pertinent to sensory information about crude touch?
Lateral column and anterior column.
What part of the column is pertinent to involuntary motor information?
Anterior column.
What is contained in the dorsal root?
Axons of all afferent neurons, somatic and autonomic, that are entering the spinal cord at that level.
What is the dorsal root ganglion?
A swelling in the dorsal root that contains the cell bodies for the afferent neurons.
What is the classification of afferent neurons?
They are unipolar.
What is contained in the ventral root?
Contains the axons of all efferent neurons, somatic and autonomic, that are exiting the spinal cord at that level.
What makes up the spinal nerve?
Formed by the union of the dorsal roots and the ventral roots as they go through the interverebral foramen of the vertebral column.
What is the purpose of the Anterolateral Spinothalamic Tract?
Carries sensory information from the spinal cord to the thalamus and cerebrum.
Where is the Anterolateral spinothalamic tract found?
One portion of the tract is found in the anterior column and the other portion in the lateral column. Their pathways are similar.
What tract is responsible for pain and temperature?
Anterolateral spinothalamic tract.
What is the anatomical pathway of the anterolateral spinothalamic tract?
First order neuron (afferent neuron), Second order neuron (internuncial neuron), and the third order neuron (Internuncial neuron).
What kind of receptors does the first order neuron have in the anterolateral spinothalamic tract?
Free nerve ending receptors.
Where does the dendrite send sensory information in the first order neuron of the anterolateral spinothalamic tract?
The dendrite sends the sensory information to the cell body in the dorsal root ganglion.
Where does the first order neuron send information to in the anterolateral spinothalamic tract?
Synapses onto second order neuron in the dorsal horn.
Where does the second order neuron send information to in the anterolateral spinothalamic tract?
Axon immediately crosses to the opposite side of the spinal cord and then ascends in the anterior or lateral spinothalamic tract to the thalamus. Synapses onto the third order neuron.
Where does the third order neuron send information to in the anterolateral spinothalamic tract?
Axon ascends through the internal capsule to the postcentral gyrus of the parietal lobe for inegration.
Lesions which include only the left or the right anterolateral spinothalamic tract, thalamus or cerebral hemisphere will result in what?
Sensory deficit on the contralateral side of the body.
Lesions which include only the afferent neuron, first neuron of the pathway of the anterolateral spinothalamic tract, will result in what?
Sensory defict on the ipsilateral side of the body.
What causes phantom sensation?
Swelling and scar tissue at the amputation site which places pressure on the peripheral nerve containing those neurons that previously supplied sensory information.
What are the two parts of the Dorsal Column Tract?
Fasciculus gracilis and faciculus cuneatus.
What tract carries proprioception?
Dorsal column tract.
What tract carries discriminative touch?
Dorsal column tract.
What tract carries vibration?
Dorsal column tract.
What carries information from the lower half of the body in the dorsal column tract?
Fasciculus Gracilis.
What carries information from the upper half of the body in the dorsal column tract?
Fasciculus Cuneatus.
What tract carries motor information from the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord?
Anterolateral Cortisospinal Tract.
What tract is spefically for voluntary motor?
Anterolateral corticospinal tract.
What is the anatomical pathway of the anterolateral corticospinal tract?
Lateral portion of the tract, two neuron pathway, upper and lower motor neuron.
What kind of neuron is the Upper Motor Neuron?
Internuncial neuron.
Where is the upper motor neuron located?
Cell body and dendrites located in the precentral gyrus of the frontal lobe.
Where does the axon of the upper motor neuron go from the precentral gyrus?
Descends through the internal capsule to the medulla oblongata.
Where does the axon of the upper motor neuron go after it reaches the medulla oblongata?
Axon crosses to the contralateral side of the medulla oblongata and then continues to descend into the spinal cord in the lateral column.
Where does the axon of the upper motor neuron go after it travels down the lateral column of the spinal cord?
It synapses onto the lower motor neuron in the ventral horn of the spinal cord at level of exit.
What kind of neuron is the lower motor neuron?
Efferent neuron.
Where does the lower motor neuron exit?
Axon exits the spinal cord through the ventral root and goes to it effector muscle.
What is the result of lesions in the anterolateral corticospinal tract superior to the medulla oblongata?
Will result in motor deficit contralateral to the lesion.
What is the result of lesions in the anterolateral corticospnal tract inferior to the medulla oblongata?
Results in motor deficit ipsilateral to the lesion.
What is the difference between lesions in the upper motor neuron and lower motor neuron?
The ability for reflexes to continue without any suppression in the upper motor neuron lesions while in lower motor neuron lesions the reflex arc is completely disrupted.
What is Decussation?
Tract that crosses in medulla.