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26 Cards in this Set

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Executive agreements
Formal government agreement entered into by the executive branch that does not require the advice and consent of the US Senate.
The pardon
An executive grant providing restoration of all rights and privileges of citizenship to a specific individual charged or convicted of a crime
The Executive Office of the President
EOP) Establishment created in 1939 to help the president oversee the bureaucracy.
Going public
A president goes over the heads of the members of congress to gain support from the people, who can then place pressure on their elected officials in Washington.
Kennedy speech at Rice University (what was it about
Going to the moon
Ford address to the nation (what did Ford ask for from the American people
Prayers
National Security Council
White House chief of staff facilitates the smooth running of the staff and the executive branch of government. They protect the president from mistakes and help implement policies to obtain the maximum political advantage for the president.
The White House Staff
The political condition in which different political parties control the White House and Congress.
Divided government
President sets national policy and priorities through his budget proposals and his continued insistence in their congressional passage. It outlines the programs he wants but indicates the importance of every program by the amount of funding requested for each and its associated agency or department.
Presidential budget proposa
OMB) The office that prepares the president’s annual budget proposal, reviews the budget and programs of the executive departments, supples economic forcasts, and conducts the detailed analyses of proposed bills and agency rules.
The Office of Management and Budge
A rule or regulation issued by the president that has the effect of law. All executive orders must be published in the federal registrar.
Executive Orders
To advise the president on American military affairs and foreign policy. Composed of the president, vice president, and the secretaries of state and defense.
The President’s ability to persuade
- essential for a president, constitutional powers alone don’t provide modern presidents with the authority to meet rising public needs.
Presidential use of the “bully pulpit
the same thing as going public, the term invented by Teddy Roosevelt.
Judicial oversight of the bureaucracy-
The firing of public-office holders of a defeated political party and their replacement with loyalists of the newly elected party.
Congress’ power over the bureaucracy
An agency created by Congress that is generally concerned with a specific aspect of the economy.
Administrative adjudication
Reform measure that created the Civil Service Commission to administer a partial merit system. The act classified the federal service by grades, to which appointments were made and based on the results of a competitive examination. It made it illegal for federal political appointees to be required to contribute to a particular political party.
Administrative discretion
The system by which federal civil service jobs are classified into grades or levels, to which appointments are made on the basis of performance on competitive examinations.
mplementation
In the wake of the tremendous growth of big business, widespread price fixing, and other unfair business practices that occurred after the Civil War, Congress created the ICC. This marked a shift in the focus of the bureaucracy from service to regulation. It gave the government vast powers over individual and property rights.
Government corporation
Business (such as the US postal Service) established by Congress that performs functions that could be provided by a private business.
Interstate Commerce Commission
The process by which a law or policy is put into operation by the bureaucracy.
Merit
The ability of bureaucrats to make choices concerning the best way to implement congressional intentions.
Pendleton Act
A quasi-judicial process in which a bureaucratic agency settles disputes between two parties in a manner similar to the way courts resolve disputes.
Independent Regulatory Commissions
It possesses the authority to create or abolish departments and agencies as well as to transfer agency functions. It also can expand or contract bureaucratic discretion. It can also control by investigation and uses power of the purse.
Spoils system
Judiciary’s oversight function is not very apparent. Federal judges can directly issue injunctions or orders to an executive agency even befor a rule is promulgated formally, giving the federal judiciary a potent check on the bureaucracy. The courts also have ruled that agencies must give all affected individuals their due process rights.