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34 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The process of protein synthesis begins in the nucleus, with the ... of the double stranded DNA into a single stranded RNA
transcription
The RNA is processed by a complex of enzymes (RNA slicing) to remove the non-coding regions resulting in the creation of a ...
messenger RNA (mRNA)
the mRNA translocates to the cytoplasm through ...
nuclear pores
what encodes for AAs, the building blocks of proteins
mRNA
the conversion of mRNA into a protein is called ...
translation
during the process of translation, each AA is specified by a triplet of nucleotides called a ...
codon
the entire process of translation occurs on ...
ribosomes
during the translation process, AAs become covalently linked to one another by the formation of ... creating a polypeptide
peptide bonds
what are the 2 types of ribosomes?
bound to RER
free in cytoplasm
what part of the rER contains extracytoplasm?
lumen
membranes surrounding a lumen are called...
cisternae
proteins encoded for by rER-bound ribosomes become ... proteins, or ... or ... proteins
integral membrane
lysosomal
secretory
free ribosomes encode for ... proteins.
cytoplasmic
both free ribosomes and ribosomes attached to rER occur as ...
polyribosomes
the rER is a series of membrane (~7 nm thick) cisternae surrounding a ... or intracisternal space
lumen
the lumen of rER often contains ... material (fuzzy stuff)
flocculent
... (secretory) gland cells contain large cisternae of rER which lie parallel to one another and form large arrays in the cytoplasm
exocrine
major function of rER is synthesis and segregation of ... and ... proteins from the cytoplasm.
secretory
integral membrane
protein synthesis on rER membranes involves a ...
-ribosomes are the same. it's what's being translated from mRNA that determines the type of ribosome
signal sequence
the golgi complex is present in all eukaryotic cells and is located where in the cell?
in cell center (along with centrosome)
golgi consists of a series of subcompartments organized as a ... of membrane-limited cisternae arranged in a polarized series
stack
the ... (maturing) face is on the side furthest away from the rER
trans
the ... (forming) face is the side that is facing the rER
cis
the golgi kinda forms a U-shape, with the ... face at the bottom and the ... face at the top
cis
trans
the golgi is usually restricted to a defined area of the cell referred to as the golgi region, or golgi zone, which is located next to the ... in the majority of cell types
nucleus (juxtanuclear)
resident enzymes are differentially distributed across the golgi stacks, i.e. sialytransferase is only located in the ... golgi
trans
the golgi is ...: The ... or entry side faces the rER; the ... or exit side faces secretory granules or vesicles and centrioles
polarized
cis
trans
Small vesicles and "transitional elements" of the rER are found opposite the ...-side of the golgi complex. transitional elements are part rough and part smooth ER. the smooth membranes face the ...-most cisternae of the golgi complex
cis
cis
the more active cell,the (smaller or larger) the golgi apparatus?
larger
All golgi membranes are smooth. In some cells, golgi membranes increase in thickness from cis( # nm) to trans (#-# nm)
6
8-10
golgi is the major center for membrane ... (targeting to proper location)
-puts proteins in the correct compartments
trafficking
golgi is exclusively responsible for a number of ... of proteins
post-translational modification
the golgi functions to
-begin terminal N- and O-...
-... lysosomal enzymes
-... (occurs in trans-section of golgi)
glycosylation
phosphorylates
sulfation
Fatty acylation (attachment of fatty acids to membrane proteins) and proteolytic processing of proproteins are believed to take place at least in part in the ... and ... golgi elements
cis
trans