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31 Cards in this Set

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Lipids consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally ..., soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water
hydrophobic
lipids form the framework of biological ..., provide ... reserves (9 kcal/g), ... vital organs, ... the body, and can act as vitamins, hormones, and other chemical ...
membranes
energy
cushion
insulate
messengers
Fat makes up approximately ..% of the calories consumed in the average american diet
38%
... are related to many human pathological conditions, including Alzheimer's, obesity, cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, metabolic syndromes, lipid storage diseases
lipids
what are the 5 classes of lipids?
-triglycerides (triacylglycerols)
-phospholipids
-sphingolipids (sphingophospholipids and glycolipids)
-eicosanoids
-cholesterol (and its derivatives)
what are the building blocks of lipids?
fatty acids
fatty acids:
-carboxylic acid with a long ... "tail"
-numbering of carbons begins with the alpha carbon or omega carbon
-most "natural" fatty acids have an ... number of carbons
aliphatic
even
naming of FAs:
-In IUPAC nomenclature (systematic name), FAs have an "..." suffix
-in common nomenclature, the suffix is usually "..."
-FA's can also be abbreviated using the number of carbons in the FA chain, followed by a colon, and then the number of unsaturated bonds present
-oic acid
-ic acid
what is this?
-all carbons in the chain contain as many hydrogens as possible
-no carbon-carbon double bonds present
-packed together very tightly forming solid animal fats
saturated fatty acids
what is this?
-contain an alkenyl functional group (-CH=CH-)
-double bond "kinks" or bends chain --> looser packaging, liquid (oil)
-cis (same side) or trans (opposite sides) configuration
unsaturated fatty acids
which 3 fats are unhealthy?
saturated fats
trans-unsaturated fats
hydrogenated fats
Fatty acids can be ... or ... to other molecules (such as triglycerides and phospholipids)
free
attached
... fatty acids are an important fuel source (preferred by heart and skeletal muscle to glucose) (beta-oxidation)
free
Fatty acids can undergo esterification (acid combines with an alcohol to form an ester), acid-base reactions, or reduction to yield ...
alcohols
triglyceride structure
-"fats", oils, adipose tissue
-... backbone esterified with 3 fatty acids (chains usually 16, 18, 20 Cs in length)
-derived from any extra ... consumed (fat, carbs, or protein)
glycerol
calories
main function of triglycerides is ...
energy
measuring ... levels can serve as markers for other diseases.

normal is less than 150 mg/dL
triglyceride
phospholipids resemble triglycerides with one of the fatty acids replaced with a ... esterified to a functional group (choline, ethanolamine, serine, glycerol, or inositol)
phosphoric acid
Phospholipids are ... (hydrophilic polar head group (phosphate moiety) and 2 hydrophobic fatty acid tails
amphipathic
phospholipids are the main constituents of ... (forms micelles and lipid bilayers)
cell membranes
what is this?
-resembles phosphatidylcholine, except the fatty acid at C1 of glycerol contains either an O-alkyl (-O-CH2-) or O-alkenyl either (-O-CH=CH-) species.
-The C2 position of the glycerol backbone is commonly occupied by arachidonic acid or decosahexanoic acid
plasmalogens
functions of plasmalogens
-impt structural ... components and ...
-enriched in neural membranes
-may act as endogenous ...
-...-->mediator of hypersensitivity and inflammation
membrane
second messengers
antioxidants
PAF (platelet activating factor)
sphingolipids
-backbone is ...(derived from serine rather than glycerol)
-includes ceramides, sphingomyelin and glycolipids (cerebrosides, sulfatides, globosides, gangliosides)
sphingosine
functions of sphingolipids
-forms a mechanically stable and chemically resistant ... within plasma membranes
-helps form the ... in the nervous system
-funciton in cell ... and ...
barrier
myelin sheath
recognition and signaling
what are these?
-oxygenated derivatives of 3 different 20-C essential fatty acids (omega-3, omega-6)
-formed using the enzymes cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase
eicosanoids
what are these?
-leukotrienes
-prostaglandins
-prostacyclins
-thromboxanes
the 4 main groups of eicosanoids
functions of eicosanoids
-very diverse group of ... molecules
-major players in ... response
(aspirin and NSAIDs block eicosanoid synthesis)
signaling
inflammatory
what is this?
-cell membrane component and precursor to steroid hormones and vitamin D
-central core consisting of 4 fused rings is shared by all steroids
cholesterol
cholesterol can be ... into many different things, including other important hormones
converted
sources of cholesterol
-... synthesizes 2 grams of cholesterol a day (85% of blood cholesterol)
-#% of blood cholesterol comes from dietary sources (meat and dairy)
liver
15%
HDLs (... cholesterol) carry LDLs (... cholesterol) away from artery walls. LDLs stick to artery walls and can lead to plaque build-up (atherosclerosis
good
bad