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89 Cards in this Set

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Lateral Giant Escape
Abrupt stimulus evokes a short-latency and flexion of 10ms tail flip, of an upward adn forward motion leading to the first half of a somersault. Moving it up and away from the stimulus.
Medial Giant Escape
Visual stimulus with an abrupt onset to the front. A rapid tail flip that propels the animal backward.
Non-giant Escape
The stimulus is not as abrupt, and does not involve LGIs or MGIs. It is of long-latency and occurs as a tail flip, alternating extension and flexion then swimming.
Motor Giants
Powerful synaptic connections to flexor motor neurons called these, which connect to all the fast flexor muscles in each abdominal segment.
LGI Circuit Part 1
1. Sensory Input- from 1,000 cuticular hairs that cover the abdomen, containing bipolar receptors that are directionally sensitive to movement, and produce activation of the flexor system.
LGI Circuit Part 2
2. Sensory Interneurons- Receive direct input form sensory neurons and relay that input to the LGIs. A-cells fire phasically to tail fan input and project up to the brain, providing input to the LGIs in each abdominal ganglion, and C-cells among a class of cells that fire tonically to input and project to the LGIs in each abdominal segment.
LGI Circuit Part 3
3. LGIs
LGI Circuit Part 4
4. MOGs- Extend thin processes that then expand near the exit in the third root and give off tufted dendrite through which the LGIs make direct electrical contact.
LGI Circuit Part 5
5. Fast Flexor Muscles- 5 phasic flexor muscles all innervated by the MOG
Pathways of the Tail-flip circuit.
1. sensory neurons make contact with LGIs indirectly through A-type and C-type interneurons, and directly through electrical synapse.
2. Via an intervening premotor interneuron called the Segmental Giant, which receives and electrical connection form the LGI and then makes electrical synapses onto several fast flexor neurons.
Lateral and giant axons with cell bodies and dendrites in the brain, receive sensory input. Lateral of separate cells connected end to end by means of electrical synapses called septate/segmental/synapses.
Escape Response by the LGI
1. rapid flexion of the abdomen
2. reextension of the abdomen 3. swimming
Best response by a tap to the abdomen or tail fan.
When it triggers a spike in the LGIs, activate output to the fast flexor muscles by: 1. powerful electrical excitation of the Motor Giants, then excites the fast flexor muscles. Activated by the giant axons. 2. Through the segmental giant, with which the LGIs make electrical synapses.
LGIs as decision-makers
1. Action potentials of the LGIs are sufficient to produce a normal escape response. 2. Action potentials in the LGIs are necessary for the normal response to occur. As a command neuron- the electrical stimulation of single interneurons in the crayfish evoked coordinated, rhythmic movements of small paddlelike abdominal appendages called swimmerets. Activation of these neurons individually typically gave rise to some form of complex behavioral output.
Command-derived Inhibition
In preventing other competing behaviors from being expressed, and in preparing the way for the expression of the next components of the overall escape behavior. It is widespread and differs in temporal characteristics.
Sites of Command-Derived Inhibition
1. LGIs and MGIs inhibited following an LGI spike.
2. Sensory inflow- postsynaptic inhibition and presynaptic of afferent-to-sensory interneuron synapses
3. Motor Giants- After sufficient time has elapsed for them to discharge only once. Prevents another flexor discharge form occurring before reextension.
4. Fast Flexor Muscles- At the time when peak behavioral flexion is accomplished.
Sources: 1. Muscle Receptor Organ MRO- signals the ongoing state of abdominal stretch to the CNS initiates extension and inhibits flexion, like a chain reflex.
2. Hair receptors on the abdomen.
Series of nongiant responses and triggered by activation of the hair receptors on the abdomen. Mediated by a central pattern generator, because it does not require feedback.
Modulation of the Escape Response
1. restraint-induced inhibition
2. motivation
3. learning
1. Restraint-induced inhibition
Restraint of the animal, which reduces the probability of a tail flip response. When the nerve cord is severed at the thoracic-abdominal junction, restraint-induced inhibition is abolished.
2. Motivation
In a conflicting situation in which they are engaged in one highly motivated behavior like feeding, when another stimulus arises, like a tap to the tail fan. What to do? Feeding behavior raises the threshold of the LGI-mediated escape responses but leaves other escape routes open. 1. One is initiated by the LGIs themselves (command-derived inhibition), to ensure the second tail flip cannot be triggered while an ongoing flip is in progress.(absolute) 2. Restraint or feeding, tonic inhibition is responsible (relative)
Habituation known as the reduction in a behavioral response produced by repeated stimulation. Self-habituation is prevented by a command-derived inhibition, the mechanisms under an induced LGI tail flip are concomitantly suppressed, while escape responses are triggered.
Released in a broader area and targeted. Bind to receptors in the cell membrane, generally linked to G proteins that activate intracellular signaling cascades. Effects are 1. modulation of ion channels and receptors 2. changes in protein synthesis, enzyme activity, and gene transcription
Are neuromodulators from single amino acids. Like dopamine, noradrenaline, octopamine, and serotonin. Mediate a variety of cns functions in vertebrate brain.
Octopamine in flight in locusts
Level rises in cns system during stress, and increases ventilation and cardiac contraction amplitude, and sensitize specific neuronal commponents of flight and escape.
Locust Flight Behavior
Controlled by a central pattern generator.
Octopamine and flight experiments
Injection of it releases a flight-like motor pattern. Also when applied to the bath medium surrounding thoracic ganglion.
Octopaminergic neurons sufficient to evoke flight?
Neurons called dorsal or ventral unpaired median neurons DUM or VUM neurons release octopamine.
Necessary to evoke flight?
Using reserpine to deplete the synaptic content of all monoaminergic neurons show impairment in the ability of insects to generate flight sequences. Octopamine, dopamine or both are necessary for flight behavior.
Octopamine on muscles
Increases twitch tension of skeletal muscles, it reduces tetanic tensions and increases relaxation rates, allowing muscles to be activated at faster frequencies without the buildup of basal tensions.
Octopamine on metabolism
Increases the release of free lipids from the fat body and in addition improves oxygen uptake from tracheae.
Dopamine in the venom of wasps.
Hunts cockroaches, stinging in head and laying a single egg, and grooms for 30 minutes, then motionless and unable to escape. Wasp grabs by it's antennae and uses it as food, in 6 weeks a wasp emerges. By attacking the prey's central nervous system.
Dopamine and grooming.
It is the most potent inducer of grooming, and alone is sufficient to induce grooming.
Necessary for inducing grooming?
Venom induces excessive grooming predominantly by acting via the dopaminergic system.
Monoamines in invertebrate.
Aggression in lobsters and crickets as a stance for a winner vs. loser, winning with high levels of serotonin with an injection to losers results in a renewed willingness to engage in encounters.
Vertebrates Aggression
Rather lower serotonin levels are associated with enhanced aggression.
Dopamine in humans
Involved with grooming, but in voluntary locomotor control, pleasure or reward systems, emotion, and cognition.
Production of Song
Elementrary units/notes, combined into syllables, then strung together into complex phrases. Within a species specific song dialects are transmitted from one generation to another. Songs with neighbors can vary.
9 air-sacs, precise coordination with respiration, vocal organ is syrinx (junction of the trachea and the primary bronchi). Sound generated by vibration of the internal tympaniform membranes, air is expelled from air sacs to the bronchi.
William Thorpe's Experiments
1. young birds learned songs through imitation
2. song learning can only occur during a critical period, ending before sexual maturity from 10 to 50 days old.
Experiment With 2 tutors
picks species own song
Experiment with isolation
produces simple song
Experiment with deaf
produces abnormal song
Experiment with 1 tutor of a different species
produces tutor song
Phases of song
1. sensory phase
2. sensorimotor phase
3. crystallized
1. sensory motor
Hears and memorized father's song, no singing.
2. sensorimotor
With vocal practice. Subsong (substage 1) is a soft series of sounds that are vairable in timing and pattern, like babbling in babies. Plastic song (second substage) Rehearsal of previously learned song begins. Temporal pattern similar to adult, but duration and compostition is variable. Overproduction of syllables only 1/3 go to crystallized.
3. crystallized
Full song is express and remains unchanged from season to season.
Exceptions in Song
Zebra-Finch and sparrow are age-limited learners, exposed to song before 60 days learn it, but nothing after it.
Canary is open-ended learners, no limit to changing song.
Only if the song is combined with a visual signal, while crowned sparrows adopt the song form other species.
Circuits in the song system
Motor pathway (production) NIF, HVc, RA, VL, NXII
Interior forebrain (learning) DLM, Area X, LMAN
Forebrain auditory input (sensory feedback and memory)
Sexually dimorphic
In zebra finches, males seing and females do not. Under steroid hormonal control = testosterone. Levels rise in male songbirds during the breeding period.
Male swamp sparrows castrated early in life.
Go through some delayed stages of song development but never attain a normal crystallized song. Testosterone replacement therapy rescues normal song development as long as it is present.
Zebra Finch females with early estrogen treatment injected with testosterone as adults.
Sing and perform courtship behavior.
levels in blood increase in late spring and early spring. The size of the HVC and RA undergo seasonal volume changes in males.
Song Learning
Addition of new neurons = neurogenesis.
Lesion of the left HVC causes major dispruption of the song patterns, lesion of the right HVC has only modest effect like the hemispheric dominance for song control.
Electrical stimulation of the HVC neurons
Induces a phase advance in the song pattern. HVC neurons are part of th pattern-generating circuitry of the song system.
Neurons in the LMAN
Respond best to the bird's own song but less to a reversed song.
Immediate Early Genes
Code for proteins that regulate the activity of other genes. Important in the growth of nerve cells and affect nerve cell activity. Exposure to song induces IEG response in the brain. memory of learned songs are stored in the NCM and CHV
Dance in Bees
The return of the forager encodes the relationship between food source and sun. Always dance on a vertical plane, then degrees of wiggling toward the sun.
Round Dance
Food is within 50-75 meters of the hive.
Waggle Dance
Food is farther than 75 meters from the hive.
-angular variance very close to the feeder
- distance variance measured by optic flow
Vertical stripes in a tunnel increase optic flow. Results: 1. Feeder at beginning of tunnel of 35 m total Round dance. 2. Feeder at the end of tunnel 35 + 6 m Waggle dance. 3. Horizontal stripe at the end of tunnel 35 + 6 round dance 4. feeder 6 m + 6 m waggle dance. All had vertical stripes except for #3, optic flow increase, overshoots the distance. Waggle dance is the #1 cue.
Signals produced during waggle dance, usually at the edges of open combs. Evokes neural activity in leg nerve.
Honeybees and Color
Can be trained to associate specific color with food reward. And navigate a novel maze on color rule sets. They can see ultraviolet but not red.
Honeybees and Patterns
Can discriminate between complex visual patterns and abstract images with a specific orientation. Of symmetrical and asymmetrical visual patterns. Can recognize the diamond when the color or the texture of the object or background are varied. Shapes of objects on basis of their outlines.
Proboscis Extension Reflex
Antennae or proboscis of a hungry bee comes in contact w/sucrose, bee reflexy extends her probosici. Can be conditioned to occur if sucrose the US is with and odor of CS.
Interstimulus Interval Function
Examining the effect on learning of a range of CS-US intervals.
Temporal Window
Odor CS geraniol w/sucrose US relating to color learning, was 3s CS preceding US even w/a single training trial.
Bees Learning
Only if the CS and US are paired, quite rapid with only a few trials.
Inhibitory learning
Occurs in the 1st phase of training, retards the acquisition of learning in 2nd stage. Retardation was greater when there were greater numbers of unpaired presentations in the 1st phase. CS and US comes to be associated w/one another.
Differential Conditioning
PER exhibits more complex features called blocking and second order conditioning.
Anatomy of Bee Brain
-Antennal lobe is olfactory stimuli activate chemoreceptors on teh antennae.. mushroom bodies, ,and lateral photocerebrum
CS pathway
Olfactory info. flows from the antennal lobe to mushroom bodies.
US pathway
Info. about sucrose arise from chemorecptors that project to motor areas in subesophageal ganglion generate reflex response.
Receives input from Kenyon cells, unique identified mushroom body output neuron was capable of exhibiting a pairing-specific response decrement after only a single trial. After 5 trials clear increase in response to PE1. Exhibits pairing-specific changes in its firing rate following conditioning.
Rewarding function of the US in PER conditioning. Neurons response in prolonged fashion to sucrose. Cell response actively to sucrose and that intracellular activation of this neuron can substitute for a sucrose US such that pairing an odor CS with VUMmx1 activation produces reliable PER conditioning.
Second-Order Conditioning
1. an odor CS1 is paired w/sucrose US until good PER conditioning is exhibited
2. odor CS2 paired w/CS1, after CS2 alone is able to elicit reliable CRs
Magnetic Field
Provides directional/compass info. a consistent heading in a particular direction north or south. Position and direction to a goal. Possibly by 1. the intensity of the total field 2. intensity of the horizontal field 3. intensity of the vertical field
Loggerhead Sea Turtles
Florida coast hatch, to North Atlantic gyre at least several years to the Atlantic Ocean. Can distinguish among magnetic fields that exist in widely separated oceanic regions. Response to these is inherited.
Map step
In relation to bird navigation, a bird hypothesized to assess its position relative to a destination and determine the direction that must be traveled to reach the goal.
Compass step
A compass mechanism was used to set a course in the desired direction.
Experiment with magnetic map in older sea turtles
Older sea turtles exploit magnetic information more complex than hatchlings. The ability to navigate to specific locations appears to be based at least partly on the animal's experience and learned understanding of how the Earth's field varies over a considerable geographic area.
Spiny Lobster
nocturnal and are capable of homing after being displaced several kilometers from a capture site. Results show that possess a magnetic map that facilitates navigation toward specific geographic areas.
Bicoordinate Magnetic Maps
Animals detect and exploit two different magnet field elements, to determine their location relative to a goal. However, requires cognitive and computational skills. Maybe as two separate magnetic gradients.
Swimming the isoline
It can recognize the magnetic isoline on which the island falls. Adopt a heading to one side or the other of the target that, when the isoline is intersected, the animal knows which direction to swim along the isoline to intersect the island.
Magnetic waymark navigation
Might guide animals to specific target areas during long migrations.
Secular variation
Magnetic map of the Earth's field is not static but instead changes gradually over time.