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260 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
histology is the study of ...
tissues
what is a group of similar cells united by extracellular material?
tissue
what are the 3 functions of extracellular matrix?
structural support
nutrients
wastes
what are the 4 basic tissues of the body?
Epithelial
connective
muscular
neural
what tissue type is good for covering surfaces, external and internal?
epithelial
what type of tissue has their cells far apart from each other (with lots of extracellular material in between?)
connective
the nucleus contains..., and the rest of the cell contains ...
nucleoplasm
cytoplasm
what organelle is the cell's digestive sytem?
lysosome
what function does the rough ER have?
protein synthesis
what function does the smooth ER have?
lipid metabolism and steroid hormone synthesis
what in the cell, is not membrane bound, and are accumulations of metabolites or products?
inclusions
what are 3 types of cytoskeletons in the cell?
microfilament
intermediate filament
microtubule
What size is an intermediate filament and what does it do?
10 nm
maintains shape of the cells
what cytoskeleton types are involved with movement?
actin (microfilament) and microtubules
what forms the mitotic spindle in mitosis?
microtubules.
who is van Leeuwenhoek?
made the first microscope
what is the smallest distance between 2 particles at which they can be seen as separate objects?
resolution
what describes the ability of a system to distinguish, detect, and/or record physical details by electromagnetic means?
optical resolution.
increasing resolution means to make R a (smaller or larger) number?
smaller
visible light used for light microscopy has a wavelength of about ...
400-750 nm
the wavelength of an electron used in transmission electron microscopy is aobut ... nm
0.005 nm
... can resolve no further than a human egg
An unaided human eye
... can resolve no further than a bacteria
light microscope
5 steps in preparing tissue for microscopy
1) harvest and fix
2) infiltration and embedding
3) section and collect
4) stain
5) visualize with microscope
tissues are mechanically and biochemically stabilized by a ...
fixative
the most common fixative is ...
10% formaldehyde
infiltration process involves ... to dehydrate the tissue, followed by a clearing agent such as ..., and finally ...
ethanol
xylene
paraffin wax
besides usuing paraffin wax, embedding can also be accomplished by ...

the advantages to this is...
freezing medium

you don't have to fix the tissue (denature the proteins) and there is a very short turnaround time (like during surgery)
tissue is sectioned into very thin (2-8 micrometer) sections using a ...
microtome
frozen tissue embedded in a freezing medium is cut on a microtome in a cooled machine called a ...
cryostat
for electron microscopy, tissues are embedded in a hard resin plastic. The tissue is then sectioned into ... (40-90 nm) sections using ...
ultrathin

ultramicrotome
the insides of tubes is usually called the ...
lumen
the very common stains called ... and ... (referred to as ...) can be used to allow one to visualize different components of a cell.
hematoxylin
eosin
H&E
... stains the nucleus and other acid containing structures blue.
hematoxylin
... colors the cytoplasm a pink color
eosin
what are the different types of microscopes?
light microscope
electron microscope (transmission and scanning)
what type of microscope shows structures in 3-D?
scanning electron microscope
... microscope has the best resolution
transmission electron
the resolution of ... microscopes can see no smaller than viruses
scanning electron
... microscopy and ... microscopy allows you to view specimens without staining
phase-contrast

Nomarsky differential interference (3D)
tissue components are described as ... if they stain with basic dyes
basophilic
tissue components are described as ... if they stain with acid dyes
acidophilic
3 basic stains are
toluidine blue
methylene blue
hematoxylin
3 acid stains are
orange G
acid fuchsin
eosin
common stains used in TEM are ... such as (3 examples)
heavy metals

uranium
lead
osmium
both male and female sex cells pass through a series of changes called
gametogenesis
... are capable of participating the the process of fertilization
gametes
...(the union of the male gamete and the female gamete) normally occurs in an area of the uterine tube called the ...
fertilization

ampulla
the fertilized egg will travel from the uterine tube to the ..., where the developing individual will remain until birth.
uterus
6-7 days after fertilization, ... occurs and it is known as a ...
implantation

blastocyst
what is a fertilized egg, after nuclear fusion
zygote
what is the developing organizm from 2-8 weeks?
embryo
what is the developing organism from 9 weeks to birth
fetus
an embryo or fetus and all of the surrounding membranes is known as
conceptus
when the cells in the blastocyst separates into 2 layers, it is known as the ...
bilaminar disk
When there are 3 layers, it is known as ...

and those 3 layers are
gastrulation

endoderm
ectoderm
mesoderm
the development of the nervous system occurs in the ... week and is known as ...
3rd
neurulation
the organs start to form during the (zygotic, embryonic, or fetus) period?
embryonic
when one part of the embryo becomes larger when another part is not, it is known as ... growth
differential growth
... become bone, and ... becomes skin or nervous
mesoderm

ectoderm
hyperplasia is a type of growth that increases...
cell number (mitosis)
Hypertrophy is a type of growth that increases...
in cell size
cells can excrete ... material that fills in the spaces between them.
extracellular
... allows organs to reach their ultimate shape. One side or part of a structure grows faster than another.
differential growth
cells between fingers undergo ...
selective cell death
... occurs when a certain area of cells in the body will change into something else. It's a pathologic de-differentiation and re-differentiation
metaplasia
epidermis is derived from...
ectoderm
dermis is derived from ...
mesoderm
... is a chemical signal that will cause a change in cells, resulting in migration, differentiation, or other change.
induction
the notochord will eventually become the...
central nervous system (brain and spinal chord)
ectoderm differentiates into... which become taller, creating the ..., which folds over to form the ... and later the ...
neuroectoderm cells
neural plate
neural groove
neural tube
... involves contraction of actin filaments in the terminal web of the ... cells
epithelia folding

epithelial
the raised borders of the neural groove are known as ...
neural folds
neural groove is converted to the neural tube by when?
end of 3rd week
... or ... creates the blastocist cavity, coelom, and lumen of the gut cavity
cavitation
canalization
a blastomere multiplies and at 16 cells (3 days), it becomes a ..., which is a big ball of tissue
morula
a blastocyst forms a big cavity known as a ... and becomes implanted in the uterine wall around day 5.
blastocoele
the 4 stages of gametogenesis
1)migration of germ cells to gonads
2)increase number of germ cells by mitosis
3)reduce chromosomal number by meiosis
4)structural and functional maturation of eggs and spermatozoa
primordial germ cells arise outside the gonads from...
the endodermal layer of the yolk sac
in the human, there are ... chromosomes in 2n DNA
46
at the beginning of meiosis, the cell (primary gametocyte) is #n, #c
2n, 4c
in the first meiotic division (reduction division), a ... results in the pairing of homologous chromosomes and frequent crossing over
prolonged prophase
daughter cells are genetically (equal or unequal) after the first meiotic division
unequal
after the first meiotic division, each daughter cell contains #n, #c
1n, 2c
what is gametogonium called in a male?

in a female?
spermatogonia

oogonia
after the 2nd division of meiosis, there are a total of 4 gametes, each with #n, #c, which is # nonreplicated chromosomes.
1n, 1c

23
female gametes are called
the ovum
male gametes are called
spermatids
secondary spermatocytes have... replicated chromosomes. #n, #c
23

1n, 2c
spermatids go through a maturation process called ... and differentiate into ...
spermiogenesis

spermatozoa
what is the process of the morphological differentiation of spermatids called?
spermiogenesis
the tail (flagellum) of spermatozoa contains ... which allow movement to occur
microtubules
the head of the spermatozoa is called the ... and contains... that can break down different substances.

it also contains the ...
acrosome

digestive enzymes

nucleus: DNA
the mid-piece of the spermatozoa contain ... in order to ...
mitochondria
power the sperm
oogenesis happens in the ...
ovary
oogonium is found only in the ...

All oogonia complete differentiation into primary oocytes by ...
fetus

birth
primary oocytes are found in structures called ... and remain stable until some signals initiates further development
ovarian follicles
the secondary oocyte is found only in the final stage of ..., just before ovulation
Graffian (teriary/mature) follicle
all of a person's cytoplasm comes from their (mother or father)?
mother
the ... forms and is stuck in that position until right before ovulation
secondary oocyte
... forms only after fusion of sperm with outer membrane
ovum
... is a structure that contains a primary oocyte in the center of it with one to several layers of supporting cells called ... or ... cells surrounding it.
ovarian follicle
follicular
granulosa
... contains a single layer of flattened follicular cells surrounding the immature primary oocyte.
primordial follicles
beginning with the primary follicles, the granulosa cells express receptors for ... hormones (... and ...) produced by the anterior pituitary gland
gonadotropin

FSH and LH
in response to gonadotropins, the granulosa cells produce a variety of secretory products, including steroid hormones (... and ...)
estrogen
progesterone
the ... follicle is the one that starts showing spaces in between the granulosa cells.
secondary
# of primary oocytes at birth.

# of primary oocytes at puberty
2 million

40,000
the process of cells dying off is called the ..
letricia process
... oocytes develop only 1 day or so before ovulation
secondary
... of the oocyte structure exocytosis after fertilization and change the characteristics of the zona pellucida with their enzymes
cortical granules
during each menstrual period, many follicles begin development into ... and ... follicles
primary

secondary
Most oocytes in developing follicles undergo a process of dying called ...

Only 1 or 2 usually survive until ovulation
Atresia
as a secondary follicle grows, the follicular layer and ... become huge
antrum
just prior to ovulation, the primary oocyte divides to form a ... and the ...
secondary oocyte

first polar body
at ovulation, the secondary oocyte and its ... (cloud of follicular cells) ruptures the outer epithelium of the ovary, forcing them into the ... cavity.
Cumulus

peritoneal
the ... serves as a barrier that normally allows only sperm of the same species access to the egg
zona pellucida
when the head of the sperm reaches the zona pellucida, ... occurs
acrosomal reaction
the ... and the ... are the two barriers that the sperm must pass through in order to enter the egg
zona pellucida
corona radiata
in the final steps of fertilization, the chromosomes of the definative oocyte become incorportated into a vesicular (membrane bound) structure called the ...

the nucleus of the sperm becomes the ...
female pronucleus

male pronucleus
when the female and male pronuclei fuse into a single nucleus, the organism is now called a...
zygote
does mitochondria come from the mother or father?
mother
The act of ... releases the ovulated egg from a depressed metabolism and prevents its ultimate disintegration within the female reproductive tract.
fertilization
immediately after ..., the zygote undergoes a pronounced shift in metabolism, rapidly manufacturing new proteins --microtubules, histones, enzymes, etc., to prepare for rapid cell division (cleavage)
fertilization
zygote cleavage forms ...
blastomeres
at about ... days after fertilization, the embryo sheds its zona pellucida and attaches to the uterine lining
6
when the embryo consists of approximately 16 cells, it is often called a ...
morula
granulosa cells produce ...
estrogen
corpus luteum produces ..., which stimulates glands in the uterine to start producing glycogen and other substances to prepare for implantation.
progesterone
hcG acts like ... hormone. It's what keeps the uterine lining alive.
lutinizing
in the formation of a blastocyst, cells migrate to the periphery just inside of Zona Pellucida in order to leave space on the inside. This space is called...
blastocyst cavity
In a blastocyst, the outer cells are called...

inner cells are called...
trophoblast

embryoblast (inner cell mass)
the receptors on the ... will attach to the uterus around the 5th day, after the blastocyst pops out of the zona pellucida
trophoblast
the blastocyst will implant on any surface that it comes into contact with, usually the ... or fundis region
uterine body
If the blastocyst attaches to something other than the uterine wall, it is known as what type of pregnancy?
ectopic pregnancies
By # to # days after fertilization, the embryo is completely embedded in the endometrium
10-12
in the formation of the bilaminar embryo, the main upper layer of cells is known as the ..., and the lower layer is called the ... (or primitive endoderm)
epiblast

hypoblast
In the formation of the bilaminar embryo, the hypoblast ultimately gives rise to the endodermal lining (an extraembryonic endoderm called ...) of the yolk sac
parietal endoderm
in the formation of the bilaminar embryo, most of the epiblast gives rise to the ...
embryo
during the formation of the bilaminar embryo, the primary yolk sac forms, then becomes ..., leaving behind a remenant of the primary yolk sac
constricted
Starting at about 12 days after fertilization, another extraembryonic tissue, the ..., begins to appear
extraembryonic mesoderm
at the end of the second week, the embryo consists of 2 flat layers of cells, the ... and the ...
epiblast

hypoblast
As the third week of pregnancy begins, the embryo enters the period of gastrulation, during which the 3 embryonic germ layers form from the ...
epiblast
By about 10 days after fertilization, ... fills the space between the parietal endoderm and the trophoblast.

These are thought to develop from yolk sac epithelium cells.
extra-embryonic mesoderm
Gastrulation begins with the formation of the ...
primative streak
during the initiation of gastrulation, what forms the opening from the outside to the end of your pharynx?
oropharyngeal plate
at the primitive streak, epithelial cells differentiate into ... and migrate anteriorly into the space between epiblast and hypoblast
mesoderm
Notochord arises from epiblast at the ..., where cells migrate between ectoderm and endoderm.

They eventually form a solid cord-like mass
primative node
functions of the notochord (3)
-helps define anterior-posterior axis

-stimulates differentiation of spinal cord and somites

-helps create left-right differences
what is the eventual fate of the notochord?
most of it disappears, except for those cells that become nucleus pulposus of intervertebral disks.
the cloacal membrane gives rise to...
anus
Does the mesoderm invade the oral plate?
NO!!
upon the formation of the mesoderm, epiblast becomes renamed ...

hypoblast becomes renamed ...
ectoderm

endoderm
hypodermis, endodermis, and bone are derived from the ..., which is composed of mesenchymal cells
mesoderm
is mesoderm differentiated or undifferentiated?
undifferentiated
what is the primary germ layer of the embryo that will develop into the greatest variety of cells and tissues in the entire body?
mesoderm
what is this?
-undifferentiated cells.
-less well organized than epithelium, not covering surfaces but instead invading and surrounding itself with extracellular matrix.
-often migratory, moving with amoeboid motion, possessing a leading edge and a trailing edge.
mesenchyme
what type of mesoderm develops between the yolk sac epithelium late in the second week of development?
extra-embryonic
what type of mesoderm develops from epiblast (ectoderm) cells of the bilaminar embryo?
intra-embryonic.
As ...-embryonic mesoderm grows, it slowly displaces the ...-embryonic mesoderm
intra-

extra-
Gastrulation occurs during the ... week of development. The primative streak and then the ... appear. This indicates the migration of the ... to form a new layer of cells, called the ...
3rd
node
epiblast
mesoderm
ectoderm comes from ...
mesoderm comes from ...
endoderm comes from ...
epiblast
epiblast
epiblast or hypoblast
By day #, gastrulation (which begain earlier in the 3rd week of development) and notochord formation have been completed.
18
During the 3rd and 4th weeks, the ... and ... form.

Also, the beginnings of the ... form.
neural tubes
gut tubes
GI system
The neural tube differentiates out of the ... overlying the notochord.
ectoderm
In neural tube formation, the ... is an oval patch stretching from the oral plate to the primative node.

It thickens into a ...
receptive area

neural plate
during neural tube formation, the neural plate, which is ...(thinner? thicker?)... than the original ectoderm, has a layer of ... at the cell's apical surface. These start to contract to initiate ...
thicker
actin filaments
neural folding
The CNS appears at the beginning of the ... week as slipper-shaped plate of thickened ectoderm, which is called the ...
3rd
neural plate
the neural plate invaginates along its central axis to form ...

the raised borders of this ... are known as ...
neural groove
neural groove
neural folds
By the end of the 3rd week, neural folds move closer and fuse in midline. The neural ... is converted into the neural ...
groove
tube
After the neural groove is converted into the neural tube, a number of cells arise from the neural fold that migrate as mesoderm, referred to as ...
neural crest cells
Simultaneously with neural tube formation, is the formation of the ...
early somites
The space inside the neural tube is now a neural ...
canal
The neural crest cells aggregate ..., but some of the cells migrate through the body.
posteriorly
The neural tube gives rise to the ..., which are the ... and ...
CNS
brain
spinal cord
the neural crest gives rise to the ..., especially the sensory part of it.
PNS
Neural tube formation is induced by the ...

Ectoderm differentiates into ...

These cells become taller, creating the ..., which folds over to form the neural groove, and later the ...
notochord
neuroectoderm
neural plate
neural tube
Formation of the neural tube begins in the ... region of the embryo and progresses towards the ... and ... ends
cervical
cranial
caudal
At # days, the neural folds begin to form at the center of the embryo. The anterior and posterior parts still have neural plate.
20
At # days, the center folds have already fused and the fusion of the neural folds continue anteriorly and posteriorly.
22
By day #, the only 2 small connections between the amnion and neural tube are the ... and the ...
23
rostral(cranial) neuropore
caudal neuropore
the somites give rise to the ... that house the spinal chord.
vertebrae
The proximal part of the neural tube starts to differentiate into the ... and ...
brain
brainstem
The closure of the ends of the neural tube (... and ... neuropores) occurs towards the end of the # week
cranial
caudal
4th
cranial neuropore closes on day #

caudal closes on day #
25

27
the 3 parts of the brain and brainstem are (in order from posterior to inferior)
prosencephalon
mesencephalon
rhombencephalon
If there is a delay in the rostral neuropore closing, it results in ... (no skull covering the brain, or a portion of it lacking).
This could lead to ... (no development of the brain.
exencephaly
anacephaly
Delay in the caudal neuropore closing will result in ..., which can cause severe CNS problems
spina bifida
the ... is at the rostral part of the developing embryo. It gives rise to structures that form part of cardiovascular/respiratory.
septum transversum
The region of the ... grows faster than the ... part of the body, which leads to the embryo ...
brain
caudal
folding
the results of embryo folding are ...(3)
-head fold
-tail fold (which will eventually be lost)
-lateral body folds
As embryo folding is occuring, the yolk sac is growing (slower, faster, same speed?)

Restriction around the yolk sac(which detaches at 6 weeks) and connecting stalk(part of the trophoblast) produces the ...
slower

Umbilicus
What is the connection between the yolk sac and gut tube?(it's important for GI system in the adult)
Vitelline duct
What is the blind ended sac from the gut tube?
Allantois
These come from which germinal tissue?
-skin (epidermis)
-epidermal glands (sweat, sebaceous, mammary)
-hair, nails
-eye: lens, corneal epithelium
-inner ear labyrinth
-anterior pituitary
ectoderm
What germinal tissue do these come from?
-brain and spinal cord
-eye: retina, pigment epithelium, optic nerve
-pars nervosa of pituitary gland
neuroectoderm
All the sensory parts of the eye come from what germinal tissue?
neuroectoderm
What germinal tissue do these come from?
-yolk sac membrane (extra-embryonic mesoderm, and yolk sac epithelium, which becomes part of the GI system)
endoderm
Which germinal tissue gives rise to these?
(all internal parts of your body)
-epithelium of alimentary canal
-pancreas and liver
-thyroid, parathyroid
-thymus
-lung and trachea
-middle ear epithelium
-urethral epithelium
-vaginal epithelium
endoderm
where do maturation of T-lymphocytes occur?
in the thymus
the mesoderm is made up of...
notochord
somite
intermediate mesoderm
lateral plate mesoderm
intraembryonic coelom
somite differentiation begins from ... mesoderm.
The early somite contains a ...
It differentiates into 2 layers, which are...
undifferentiated
somatocoele
dermomyotome and sclerotome
dermomyotome differentiates into a ... and a ...
dermatome
myotome
Dermatome gives rise to ...
connective tissue and other components mostly located in the dermal region of skin
Myotome gives rise to...
all skeletal muscle
sclerotome becomes
bones, specifically vertebrae and intervertebral disks
what arises in between other mesodermal groups and gives rise to kidney, ureter and ductus deferens, and gonads?
intermediate mesoderm
somatic mesoderm (somatopleure), intraembryonic celom, and splanchnic mesoderm (splanchnopleure) all make up the ...
lateral plate mesoderm
what type of mesoderm gives rise to bones, vessels, cartilage, fascia and other connective tissues?
somatic mesoderm
what type of mesoderm gives rise to visceral smooth muscle, fascia and connective tissues of viscera, vessels, etc?
splanchnic mesoderm
what...

-migrates with the heart during embryo folding
-separates the thorax from abdomen early in development
-participates in venous cardiac development
-final derivative is central tendon of diaphragm
Septum transversum
what...
-arises from neural folds?
-gives rise to melanocytes of skin, all parts of PNS including ganglion cells, support cells, etc.
-In and near head can form bone and cartilage and possibly some muscles in the head?
neural crest
where will you find the cell body of all the sensory periphery nerves?

It also migrates the least farthest away from the neural tube.
dorsal root ganglion
In the head, many things develop differently. Many bones and cartilage arise from ... mesoderm.

Muscles are from ... (like somites but without sclerotome), not from somite myotome.
neural crest mesoderm
somitomeres
The fetal period starts at the beginning of the ... week.
9th
What includes everything derived from the zygote, including fetus (or embryo) plus all surrounding membranes?
conceptus
what cavity surrounds the fetus?
chorionic cavity
the chorionic membrane is derived from ...
trophoblast
what is the significance of the yolk sac? (which is endodermally lined) (4)
-early nutrient transfer to developing embryo
-formation of germ cells
-earliest site of blood cell development
-first blood vessels
what is this?
-blind ended sac
-lined by endoderm
-induction of umbilical blood vessels (artery and vein)
allantois
the ... are finger-like projections that increase surface area and help attach to the endometrium
chorionic villi
what is the lake of maternal blood called?
lacunae
what is the significance of the amniotic membrane?
contains the amniotic fluid
amniotic fluid arises from ...(4)
-placenta (early in development by diffusion through chorion)
-amniotic membrane
-embryonic urine (mostly water)
-guts and developing lung
what are the functions of the amniotic fluid? (4)
-protects from injury (prevents fetal/amnion fusion)
-permits symmetrical growth
regulates fetal temperature
-fluid exchange
what is this?
-space between amnion and uterus
-filled with fluid early in life
-later, as the amnion grows, this space disappears
-villous (of this) eventually becomes placenta
chorion
In the fetal period, what shrinks and then disappears?
chorion
what is invaded with vessels in order to collect nutrients from the maternal blood?
Outside, the maternal blood surrounds the ville, which form the absorptive surfaces of this.
Placenta
the ... contains oxygenated blood and goes towards the fetus. (reverse circulation of what is expected in adult)
umbilical vein
where the exchange of oxygen and nutrients occur between the fetus and mother
lacunae (maternal blood)
although the embryonic tissue, ..., is bathed in maternal blood, embryonic blood does not contact maternal blood.
syncitiotrophoblast
for a premature birth, if a fetus is less than ... grams, they usually won't survive
500
How do you determine the age of a fetus? (2)
LNMP (last normal menst. period)

Estimated day of fertility (=LNMP - 2 weeks)
Trimesters are about how many weeks each?
13 weeks
Which trimester is this?

All embryonic plus 5 wks fetal period. Most critical part of development
First trimester
which trimester is this?

Starts in 'previable' and finishes in 'viable' period.
second trimester
which trimester is this?

All 'viable' (it can survive outside the womb)
third trimester
A fetus which has not had sufficient lung development to survive outside the womb is ...
previable
A fetus which has developed enough lung to survive is ...
viable
a fetus is ... if it is gaining weight and progressing.
thriving
previable is usually less than ...g

viable is usually greater than that number. The maturity is assessed by amniocentesis test for surfactant
500 grams (1 lb)
first fetal movements (quickening) are usually felt at about ... to ... weeks.

movement of limbs is necessary for ... and ... development
17-20

muscular and nervous system development
what is this?
Two separate oocytes fertilized independently, two separate fetuses.
dizigotic (fraternal) twins
what is this?
1 zygote or blastocyte divides and creates 2 embryos with the same DNA sequence.

May or may not be in the same amniotic cavity.
monozygotic (identical) twins
Women over ... often have testing of the fetus for defects done by other means other than a simple ultrasound, just in case there is something serious.
35
What are the types of fetal testing? (5)
ultrasound
amniocentisis
chorionic villus sampling
fetoscopy
radiology
what testing of the fetus is used only at need (ex. woman over 35) and is used in karyotyping or for biochemical tests? Usually done between 12-18 weeks.
amniocentisis
which method of fetal testing is used to collect chorionic villus cells for Karyotyping?

Done between 10-12 weeks
chorionic villus sampling
which method of fetal testing es extremely hazardous to the early fetus and should only be done in the late third trimester and only when all other things have failed and you need the info immediately?
x-ray of mother and fetus (radiology)
developmental defects in the first 2 weeks are ...
so severe, they can cause embryonic death
Developmental defects that occur in weeks 3-8 could cause serious malformations because that's when ... occur
organogenisis
developmental defects can occur from external agents acting by ... (3)
-interfering with cell division
-interfering with cell migration
-delaying cell differentiation
Cleft developmental defect is ...
failure of fusion
failure of an organ to develop at all is termed...
agenisis
abnormal location of development is termed ...
ectopy
an abnormal narrowing is termed ...
stenosis
an abnormal connection is termed as ...
fistula
an abnormal fluid containing strucutre is termed ...
cyst
a developmental defect in which is a blind tube is termed...
atresia
4 major causes of developmental defects
-malnutrition and anoxia (lack of O2)
-drugs and toxic agents
-viruses
-genetic malformation
if it stains with acid dyes, it is...
acidophilic