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84 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which of the following is NOT part of a phase I clinical trial?
A. testing on the targer human population
B. testing how the drug is metabolized
C. testing how rapidly the drug is removed from the body
D. testing the most effective administration of the drug
A. testing on the target human population
The normal range of arterial blood pH is
A. 6.50-7.50
B. 7.35-7.45
C. 6.95-7.05
D. 7.15-7.25
B. 7.35-7.45
A decrease in mean arterial pressure is detected by
A. an effector
B. an integrating center
C. a sensor
D. a chemical messenger
C. a sensor
Which of the following systems is NOT primarily involved in maintaining homeostasis?
A. the endocrine system
B. the nervous system
C. both the endocrine system and the nervous system
D. the reproductive system
D. the reproductive system
If blood glucose levels decrease from normal, which of the following changes takes place to bring glucose levels back to normal?
A. increase in insulin - increase in glucagon
B. increase in insulin - decrease in glucagon
C. decrease in insulin - increase in glucagon
D. decrease in insulin - decrease in glucagon
C. decrease in insulin - increase in glucagon
Which of the following is NOT a function of neuroglia?
A. bind neurons together
B. help nourish neutrons
C. conduct impulses to effectors
D. modify the extracellular environment of neurons
C. conduct impulses to effectors
Which of the following is NOT an example of an exocrine gland?
A. mucous gland that secretes onto respiratory passages
B. sweat gland that secretes onto the skin
C. salivary gland that secretes into the mouth
D. testes cells that secrete testosterone into the blood
D. testes cells that secrete testosterone into the blood
The zygote (fertilized egg) has the ability to produce all the various types of cells found in the body This ability is known as
A. pluripotent
B. multipotent
C. totipotent
D. omnipotent
C. totipotent
The main body compartment that is inside cells is the ____ compartment
A. extracellular
B. interstitial
C. intercellular
D. intracellular
D. intracellular
An atom with 5 protons, 5 neutrons, and 6 electrons would have a net charge of
A. -1
B. -2
C. +1
D. +2
A. -1
A blood pH of 7.6 is
A. indicative of acidosis
B. indicative of alkalosis
C. in the normal physiological range
D. indicates effective buffering by the bicarbonate/carbonic acid system
B. indicative of alkalosis
Regarding acids and bases,
A. acids will increase the pH of a solution
B. bases will decrease the pH of a solution
C. acids will accept hydrogen ions in a solution
D. bases will accept hydrogen ions in a solution
D. bases will accept hydrogen ions in a solution
Most of the water found in the body is in the
A. blood
B. intracellular fluid compartment
C. extracellular fluid compartment
D. blood and extracellular fluid compartment
B. intracellular fluid compartment
How many single bonds can a carbon atom form if it is double-bonded to an oxygen atom?
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4
B. 2
Peptide bonds are formed by the process of
A. ketosis
B. hydrolysis
C. dehydration synthesis
D. aromatization
C. dehydration synthesis
A protein that is combined with another type of molecule like a carbohydrate is
A. conjugated
B. denatured
C. hydrolyzed
D. complemental
A. conjugated
Release of neurotransmitters occurs via
A. exocytosis
B. endocytosis
C. phagocytosis
D. pinocytosis
A. exocytosis
The pH of the cytoplasm is more ______ than the interior of a primary lysosome
A. basic
B. acidic
C. neutral
A. basic
Cells actively involved in secreting proteins would contain large numbers or quantities of
A. lysosomes
B. peroxisomes
C. rough endoplasmic reticulum
D. smooth endoplasmic reticulum
C. rough endoplasmic reticulum
Damage to the cellular DNA that cannot be repaired would induce
A. mitosis
B. meiosis
C. apoptosis
D. cell division
C. apoptosis
Crossing over is important for
A. increasing genetic variability
B. preventing mutations
C. limiting genetic recombination
D. maintaining chromosome structure
A. increasing genetic variability
Proteins that are partially embedded on one side of the plasma membrane are
A. integral proteins
B. transport proteins
C. peripheral proteins
D. fluid proteins
C. peripheral proteins
How are the phospholipids arranged to form the plasma membrane?
A. single layer with hydrophilic heads outward
B. double layer with hydrophobic tails facing inward toward each other
C. double layer with hydrophilic heads facing inward toward each other
D. double layer with phospholipids on the outside and proteins on the inside
B. double layer with hydrophobic tails facing inward toward each other
The only flagellated cells in humans are
A. ova
B. sperm
C. goblet cells
D. tumor cells
B. sperm
What organelle functions to chemically modify cellular products and package them in vesicles?
A. golgi apparatus
B. mitochondrion
C. lysosome
D. ribosome
A. golgi apparatus
The _____ of the messenger RNA is recognized by the _____ of the transfer RNa
A. triplet, codon
B. codon, anticodon
C. anticodon, codon
D. anticodon, triplet
B. codon, anticodon
In the reaction (H2O+CO2<->H2CO3), increasing the concentration of H2O would
A. decrease the concentration of H2CO3
B. increase the concentration of H2CO3
C. increase the concentration of CO2
D. have no effect on either CO2 or H2CO3 concentrations
B. increase the concentration of H2CO3
Which of the following does NOT affect the activity of an enzyme?
A. the organ the enzyme is in
B. concentration of enzyme and substrate molecules
C. concentration of cofactors and coenzymes
D. pH and temperature
A. the organ the enzyme is in
In response to increased concentration of the final product of a metabolic pathway
A. all enzymes in the pathway become more active
B. intermediate enzymes become more active
C. the final product acts as an allosteric regulator of one enzyme in the pathway
D. all enzymes in the pathway become less active
C. the final product acts as an allosteric regulator of one enzyme in the pathway
Which of the following is NOT true of catalysts?
A. they are unchanged by the reaction catalyzed
B. they allow engergonic reactions to become exergonic reactions
C. they increase the amount of energy released by a chemical reaction
D. all of these choices are true
B. they allow endergonic reactions to become exergonic reactions
Cellular respiration results in an _________ in entropy as glucose is broken down to form carbon dioxide
A. increase
B. decrease
C. no change
A. increase
Free energy is ______ when exergonic reactions proceed
A. increased
B. decreased
C. unchanged
B. decreased
If NAD becomes reduced it is an
A. reducing agent
B. oxidizing agent
C. zymogen
D. allosteric inhibitor
B. oxidizing agent
Ribozymes are RNA molecules that act as
A. hormones
B. cofactors
C. enzymes
D. inhibitors
C. enzymes
The rate at which a chemical reaction can be increased is by either ______ the temperature or _______ the activation energy
A. increasing, increasing
B. increasing, decreasing
C. decreasing, decreasing
D. decreasing, increasing
B. increasing, decreasing
Metal ions such as magnesium or calcium can serve as enzyme
A. coenzymes
B. ribozymes
C. substrates
D. cofactors
D. cofactors
Regulation of a metabolic pathway by the final product of the pathway is termed
A. allosteric inhibition
B. end-product inhibition
C. negative feedback
D. both end-product inhibition and negative feedback are correct
D. both end-product inhibition and negative feedback are correct
The flow of energy in living systems is termed
A. entropy
B. enthalpy
C. bioenergetics
D. bioluminescence
C. bioenergetics
The final electron acceptor in aerobic cell respiration is
A. water
B. oxygen
C. carbon dioxide
D. ATP
B. oxygen
Anabolic reactions do NOT
A. utilize energy
B. synthesize molecules within cells
C. store energy
D. release energy
D. release energy
Glycolysis converts glucose into two ______ molecules
A. glycogen
B. lactic acid
C. acetyl CoA
D. pyruvic acid
D. pyruvic acid
______ cells normally produce ATP exclusively by anaerobic respiration metabolism
A. red blood
B. white blood
C. skin
D. nerve
A. red blood
The ATP generated in the Krebs cycle
A. is produced directly from the 5th reaction
B. is produced from the reduction of NAD
C. comes from GTP
D. comes from oxidative phosphorylation
C. comes from GTP
The electron transport system is a series of _____ reactions
A. composition-decomposition
B. dehydration synthesis-hydrolysis
C. oxidation-reduction
D. reversible
C. oxidation-reduction
ATP formation in the electron transport system is called
A. substrate level phosphorylation
B. oxidative phosphorylation
C. direct phosphorylation
D. both substrate level phosphorylation and direct phosphorylation are correct
B. oxidative phosphorylation
Glycolysis would be inhibited by
A. a lack of oxygen
B. an excess of ATP
C. an excess of ADP
D. none of the choices is correct
D. none of the choices are correct
The process of fat formation from acetyl CoA is called
A. lipogenesis
B. lipolysis
C. beta-oxidation
D. deamination
A. lipogenesis
The primary site of ketone body synthesis is
A. the lung
B. the kidney
C. the liver
D. adipose tissue
C. the liver
Fatty acids are NOT an energy source for
A. the brain
B. resting skeletal muscle
C. the liver
D. the heart
A. the brain
The majority of water within the body is found in the
A. intracellular compartment
B. extracellular compartment
C. blood plasma
D. interstitial fluid
A. intracellular compartment
Proteins that extend from the cytoskeleton within the cell, through the plasma membrane, and into the extracellular matrix are
A. lysosomal proteins
B. metallo proteins
C. receptor proteins
D. integrin proteins
D. integrin proteins
Passive transport of water is known as
A. filtration
B. osmosis
C. facilitated diffusion
D. a water pump
B. osmosis
Which of the following is able to passively penetrate the plasma membrane?
A. O2
B. small charge particles
C. large polar molecules
D. All of these choices are correct
A. O2
Which of the following cells do NOT normally have many aquaporins in their plasma membranes?
A. kidneys
B. lungs
C. salivary glands
D. skin
D. skin
Cells placed in hypotonic solutions will
A. decrease in volume
B. increase intracellular solute concentration
C. increase in volume
D. lose water to the solution
C. increase in volume
Which of the following is NOT true of a person who is dehydrated?
A. plasma osmolality increases
B. hypothalamus stimulates release of ADH
C. ADH causes the kidneys to excrete water
D. increased osmolality causes thirst
C. ADH causes the kidneys to excrete water
The transport maximum is related to the property known as
A. competition
B. saturation
C. specificity
D. inhibition
B. saturation
Which of the following is NOT true of hypoglycemia?
A. it can result in death
B. it may be due to diabetes
C. it is characterized by high plasma glucose levels
D. both it can result in death and it may be due to diabetes are correct
C. it is characterized by high plasma glucose levels
A 0.5M glucose (molecular weight = 180g) contains _____ grams of glucose per liter
A. 90
B. 180
C. 6.02 x 10(23)
D. 360
A. 90
Which of the following is NOT a functional classification of neurons?
A. motor or efferent
B. interneuron or association
C. multipolar
D. sensory or afferent
C. multipolar
Action potential transmission in the PNS is decreased if which cells are damaged?
A. astrocytes
B. microglia
C. oligodendrocytes
D. Schwann cells
D. schwann cells
Serotonin is synthesized from the amino acid
A. alanine
B. glycine
C. tryptophan
D. serine
C. tryptophan
The _____ dopamine system may be involved in emotional reward and drug addiction
A. nigrostriatal
B. mesolimbic
C. amygdala
D. dentate
B. mesolimbic
Which poison inhibits glycine receptors?
A. strychnine
B. curare
C. tetrodotoxin
D. all of the choices are correct
A. strychnine
The most common neurotransmitter in the brain is
A. glycine
B. acetylcholine
C. serotonin
D. GABA
D. GABA
Spatial summation
A. occurs when a single neuron releases neurotransmitter rapidly
B. occurs because of the convergence of many neurons on a single postsynaptic cell
C. only involves excitatory postsynaptic potentials
D. only involves inhibitory postsynaptic potentials
B. occurs because of the convergence of many neurons on a single postsynaptic cell
Enhancing the excitability of a synapse so that transmission is favored along certain pathways is called
A. long-term potentiation
B. synaptic plasticity
C. excitotoxicity
D. summation
A. long-term potentiation
Destruction of the embryonic _____ will prevent formation of the nervous system
A. ectoderm
B. mesoderm
C. endoderm
D. mesoglia
A. ectoderm
What structure separates the frontal and parietal lobes?
A. corpus callosum
B. central sulcus
C. lateral sulcus
D. longitudinal fissure
B. central sulcus
Brain metabolism may be best studied by
A. electroencephalography
B. computed tomography
C. magnetic resonance imaging
D. positron-emission tomography
D. positron-emission tomography
An example of working memory would be
A. recognizing a threatening picture
B. remembering the last hockey game you attended
C. looking up an address and addressing an envelope
D. playing a song on the piano you learned as a child
C. looking up an address and addressing an envelope
Releasing and inhibiting hormones to the anterior pituitary are produced in the
A. hypothalamus
B. pituitary gland
C. pineal gland
D. cerebral nuclei
A. hypothalamus
Which of the following is NOT a vital function of the medulla oblongota?
A. vasomotor control
B. cardiac control
C. thirst control
D. respiratory control
C. thirst control
A raised area on the cerebral cortex is a
A. sulcus
B. fissure
C. gyrus
D. mirror neuron
C. gyrus
A defect in nitric oxide synthetase gene may result in reduced _______ of cerebral arteries since nitric oxide production would be imparied
A. vasoconstriction
B. vasodilation
B. vasodilation
Autonomic motor nerves do NOT innervate
A. smooth muscle
B. skeletal muscle
C. cardiac muscle
D. glands
B. skeletal muscle
Somatic motor reflexes involve
A. the autonomic nervous sytem
B. contraction of smooth muscle
C. contraction of skeletal muscle
D. the autonomic ganglia
C. contraction of skeletal muscle
The ________ are branches made from the myelinated preganglionic sympathetic axons that go from the spinal nerves to sympathetic ganglia chain
A. dorsal rami
B. ventral rami
C. white rami communicantes
D. gray rami communicantes
C. white rami communicantes
The parasympathetic divison of the autonomic nervous system
A. has long postganglionic neurons
B. has single neuron arising from the spinal corrd
C. has relatively short preganglionic neurons
D. has terminal ganglia embedded in the visceral effectors
D. has terminal ganglia embedded in the visceral effectors
The parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system
A. utilizes norepinephrine as a postganglionic neurotransmitter
B. has a relatively short preganglionic neuron
C. utilizes acetylcholine as a preganglionic neurotransmitter
D. includes the adrenal medulla
C. utilizes acetylcholine as a preganglionic neurotransmitter
_________ is released by most postganglionic sympathetic nerves
A. acetylcholine
B. epinephrine
C. norepinephrine
D. dopamine
C. norepinephrine
"Synapses en passant" refers to the fact that postganglionic autonomic neurons release neurotransmitter
A. from the axon terminal
B. only when receptors pass over the axon
C. along the length of the axon
D. from the soma
C. along the length of the axon
Which of the following organs is dually innervated?
A. adrenal medulla
B. arrector pili muscles in the skin
C. urinary bladder
D. most blood vessels
C. urinary bladder
The _____ can control autonomic function such that under some emotional states, autonomically controlled visceral reactions like blushing, fainting, etc., can occur
A. reticular activating system
B. medulla oblongota
C. limbic system
D. cerebrum
C. limbic system