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32 Cards in this Set

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Uniformitarian Assumption
Rules governing change have always been the same. The laws of science are always in effect.
Which one of the following was not part of Darwin's theory of evolution?

(a) Gradual Pattern
(b) Discontinuous Pattern
(c) Uniformitarian Assumption
(d) Inheritance
(e) Descent with modification
(b) Discontinuous pattern
Which one of the following best describes the uniformitarian assumption?

(a) Changes in the past were more rapid than occur today.
(b) Changes in the past were governed by the same rules as are changes today.
(c) Changes in the past were slow and gradual.
(d) Changes in the past were governed by rules that are different from those
governing changes today.
(e) Changes in the past were caused by natural selection.
(b) Changes in the past were governed by the same rules as are changes today.
What did Darwin say about variation in natural species?

(a) Variation between species results in gradual evolution.
(b) Variation between species results in rapid evolution.
(c) Variation is found within all natural species.
(d) Variation within species is explained by the uniformitarian assumption.
(e) Variation within domesticated species is different from variation within natural
species.
(c) Variation is found within all natural species.
What were the two main difficulties Darwin anticipated with his theory?
Lack of intermediates and large transitions.
In the Origin of Species, for what purpose did Darwin use rudimentary organs?

(a) They illustrated the struggle for existence.
(b) They illustrated the perfection of adaptation.
(c) They illustrated the importance of geographic variation.
(d) They illustrated that species that possessed them descended from other species in which those organs were functional.
(e) They illustrated that evolution could happen quickly.
(d) They illustrated that species that possessed them descended from other species in which those organs were functional.
In the Origin of Species, what did Darwin say about the possibility that some
characteristics of plants and animals were present because they appeared
beautiful to humans?

(a) If that were true, his theory would be false.
(b) It would illustrate the power of natural selection.
(c) It would demonstrate descent with modification.
(d) The importance would depend on whether the characteristics were found in only
one geographic region.
(e) It could happen in animals but not plants.
(a) If that were true, his theory would be false.
In the Origin of Species, what was the point of Darwin’s discussion of the swim
bladder of fishes?

(a) The swim bladder is found only in some fishes.
(b) The swim bladder first served for flotation and in some fishes became later an
organ of hearing.
(c) The swim bladder is a rudimentary character.
(d) The swim bladder appears early in the development of mammals.
(e) The swim bladder is found in some reptiles.
(b) The swim bladder first served for flotation and in some fishes became later an
organ of hearing.
In the Origin of Species, what was the point of Darwin’s discussion of the
rudimentary legs of some snakes?

(a) There must be some purpose they serve.
(b) They indicate descent from a species with fully developed legs.
(c) They must have evolved because of sexual selection.
(d) They would not be present in a domesticated species of snake.
(e) They do not present a problem for his theory because some species of snakes do
not have rudimentary legs.
(b) They indicate descent from a species with fully developed legs.
What is parsimony?
The principle that scientists should investigate the simplest explanation that is consistent with the facts. In terms of evolution, it can be applied to cladograms, in which it is preferible to use the cladogram with the fewest amount of changes.
What does "maximum likelihood" mean?
Basically, it describes a cladogram or explanation that has the highest statistical probability of fitting with current and future data.
What is relict?
An endemic species that is restricted to a small geographic area that used to be widespread.
What is vicariance?
The division of a species' range.
What is adaptive radiation?
The diversification of various lineages to fill niches.
What is convergence?
When two different species develop similar characteristics (such as euphorbs and cacti) but did not inherit the same characteristics from the same ancestor.
What is coevolution?
The long term evolutionary adjustment between two species.
What is macroevolution?
Evolution above the species level.
What is microevolution?
Evolutionary change within populations
What is speciation?
The formation of a new species.
What is hyposodonty?
The height of the crown teeth.
What is the difference between a cladogram and a phylogeny?
A phylogeny is scaled to time, while a cladogram is not.
What is genetic drift? Why does it occur?
The slight change in allele frequency from generation to generation. Due to the fact that populations are finite in size.
What is a bottleneck?
A reduction in size of a population often resulting in a change in allele frequency.
What is a founder event?
The establishment of a new population, usually resulting in an allege frequency that is different from the source population.
What is the rate of substitution of neutral alleles?
2 x 10^-9 per nucleotide per year
What is gene flow?
The movement of genes between two or more populations.
Which pair of words best fills the blanks in the following sentence? The substitution
of neutral alleles is called _________ evolution because it is not caused by
___________.

a. Darwinian, genetic drift
b. non-Darwinian, genetic drift
c. Darwinian, natural selection
d. non-Darwinian, natural selection
e. None of the above.
d. non-Darwinian, natural selection
What is recombination?
The crossing over and recombining of genes during meiosis.
What is isogamy?
All gametes are the same species.
What is anisogamy?
Gametes vary in size and shape. Example is human sperm and eggs.
What is the difference between apomixis and parthenogenesis?
Apomixis is asexual reproduction in plants. Parthenogenesis is asexual reproduction in animals.
What is the difference between self fertilization and asexual reproduction?
In self fertilization, the offspring are genetically different from the parent. In asexual reproduction, the offspring is the same as the parent.