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88 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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How old is the earth for Christians and Evolutionists
how old is the universe
<10,000 and 4.5 billion
13.7 billion
Speed of Light (number)
300*10^6 m/sec (300,000km)
light year (number)
4.5*10^12km
Our galaxy name
What type of galaxy
How long is it
Milkey Way
Spiral
100,000 LY across
What comprises the triple star system
How far are they away
Alpha centauri A and B, Proxima centauri
4 LY away
How many galaxies are in our local group
30 galaxies
The center of the supercluster is what
The Virgo Cluster
Define String Theory
Matter occurs in strings, "cosmic foam"
What is Hubble famous for
and describe
Spectroscopic analysis
Doppler effect
red shift = moving away
blue shift = moving toward
What is the Hubble constant
10^6 LY @ 15km/sec
Arno Penzias
Robert Wilson
backround radiation from the big bang
Feyman radio
people from the future can communicate with the past
Hertzsprung Russel diagram does what
shows a snapshot of current space, relates luminosity to brightness as a function of temp
What type of sun do we have
Yellow class 6 star
What is the main sequence
where the suns are located for 10^10 gigayears
What is the name and type of our Sun
Sol, Yellow Star class 6, 1 solar mass
How are planets measured
Solar Mass = 2*10^33 grams
What happens to a star based on its size
>1.2 sm, burns out
<1.2 sm, supernove, black hole (1987)
Anaximander
life arose in water, fish went to land
Empedocles
replacement by harmonious forms, animals formed by attaching different parts
Democritos
matter is composed of rapidly moving atoms
Lucretius
wrote Dererum Natura (Natural Selection)
Socrates
influenced by sophists, value arguement over substance
Plato
theory of forms, everything is a poor imitation of perfection, variation = insignificant
Aristotle
scala naturae (scale of nature) - Christian Fundamentalist, positions of the ladder are immutable
Copernicus
Heliocentrism
Sir Thomas Brownje
religio medici - the dualness of science and religion
John Ussher
earth made in 4004 BC - 60,000 years old based on Biblical generations
Linaiaeus
Systema Naturae - units of classification, binomial system
George Luis Leclere
aka Compte de Bufon, wrote Histier Naturelle = degeneration = evolution/natural selection
Erasmus Darwin and John Baptiste Lemark
inheritance of acquired characteristics
William Paley
Natural Theology - clergy describing nature
James Hutton
father of historical geology
wrote Theory of the Earth, heat engine at earths core
Charles Lyell
wrote Principle of Geology
uniformitarianism
physical processes that are working now have always been working
catastrophism
stratigraphy
the earth is young, god changed the earth with catastrophes
relationships of strata
Steno's law
setiments higher than others are younger
Baron Georges Culvier
father of comparitive anatomy and vertebrae paleontology
Thomas Malthus
Essay on the Principles of Population - a mathematical relationship b/t people and their resources
Robert Chambers
attacked Huxley who talked about individual differences inspecies
The Origin of Species
presented in and spurred on by
1859 Thomas Henry Huxley
Had the same idea as Darwin
Alfred Wallace
Origin of Species pro and con
Provided a mechanism for natural selection, lacked a modern concept of inheritance
Darwin studied what before fossils
coral atolls (coral on volcanoes)
Richard Owen
named dinosaria
Ernst Mayr
biological species concept, based on gene flow, interbreed with but not between species
GG Simpson and Wiley
speices aren't static entities, they have evolved
lineage defined
chronological history
character concept defined
each species is defined by its characteristics
hybrid zone define
evolutionary stage for recent species evolution
Barriers to gene flow
premating, postzygotic
premating barriers
ecological isolation
behavior isolation - not recognizing mates
prezygotic barriers
no viable offspring
gametic isolation - different species gametes fail to unite
postzygotic barriers
hybrid inviability
hybring sterility (mule)
allopatric, simpatric
seperate, same location
isotope
an unstable form of a stable element, produces a product at a constant rate
examples of decaying isotopes
U->Th, C->N, K->Ar
Uranium -> thorium, carbon -> nitrogen, potassium -> argon
half-life
the time required for 1/2 of its atoms to decay
half-life of carbon, how far does C14 date back
5730, 50,000 yrs
K->Ar can date...
non-organic volcanic rocks, basalts, and ashes
Methods of dating
fission-track, thermoluminescence, varbles, magnetic fields, stratigraphy, biostratigraphy
Fission-track
obsidian -> volcanic glass, we measure the number of tracks
thermoluminesce
electrons become trapped inside structures, when glass is heated, it releases electrons (light)
varbles
in a lake sequence see varbles, counts the yearly cycles
paleomagnetism
the change in the earths magnetic field
stratigraphy
the study of different levels of statrum and strata
biostratigraphy
animals dated in other areas using ash can translate to areas w/out ash or rock to determine their age
center of the earth is called
mantel
Alfred Wegener
suggested supericontinental Pangaea
Vine and Matthews
plate tectonics, looked at paleomagnetic ridges of the sea floor, subduction, Himalayas
plate tectonics was discovered via
via paleomagnetism - magnetic polarity timescale,
biogeography
the study of the distribution of organisms and the processes tha tled to those distributions
vicariance
animal division via splitting the continents
persperma hypothesis
simple organsims from outer space came here
Where did Hz0 come from
example
bombardment of coments
Beta Pictoris
Alexander Operin
first suggested abiotic synthesis
Haroly Urey
Stanley Miller
life evolved from Hz, OCz, HzO, and CH4 --> amino acids, lactic acids
cell walls are made of
phospholipids
plants get their energy made by
cholorplasts and mitochondria
earliest rocks
3.8 ga
earliest fossils
found in
3.6-3.4
Apex Chert, Australia
first fossil
who described it
Primafilium
Schopf
Archean/Criptozoic Period
contained what life forms and where
4.6ga - 590ma
stromatolites in Shark Bay Australia
Vendian Period
marked as
contained what animal
2.6ga
the glacial regressions
Vendobionta (different phylum)
Cambrian Explosion
550 mya
Cambrian Explosion famous example
Burgess Shale in BC Canda, lagerstatten, trilobites, appearance of many taxa
Who discovered Burgess Shale
What was written about it
Walcott
Wonderful Life by Gould
Pikaia
earliest known cordate