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158 Cards in this Set

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Which of the following best describes what a straw man fallacy is?
Unfairly representing your opponents position
Which of the following best describes what a thought experiment is?
Imaginable scenario used to make people imagine something in order to make a point
Which of the following best describes what a false dilemma is?
Create a false list of possibilities
Which of the following best describes what a slippery slope argument is?
The initial action isn’t necessarily bad in itself, but it causes more bad things down the road
Which of the following best describes the distinction between descriptive claims and normative claims?
Descriptive: What is actually the case
Normative: What ought to be the case
Which of the following is NOT one of the five purposes Pojman gives for morality?
1. To keep society from falling apart
2. To ameliorate human suffering
3. To promote self-flourishing
4. To resolve conflicts of interest in just and orderly ways
5. To assign praise and blame, reward the good and punish the guilty
Which of the following does Pojman think Golding is trying to tell us in his novel The Lord of the Flies?
That civilization is weak and vulnerable
Which outburst of Piggy’s can best be described as making a specific claim about the objectivity of morality:
“I don’t ask for my glasses back, not as a favor, I don’t ask you to be a sport, ill say, not because you’re strong, but because what’s right’s right.”
What accessory did Jack steal from Piggy, over which a fight ensued when Piggy tried to reclaim it/them:
glasses
Which of the following best characterizes Hobbes’s main argument?
We ought to endeavor peace.
Which of the following best describes what Hobbes believes is the ultimate purpose of morality?
Security
Which of the following describes the second branch of Hobbes’s first rule that every man, ought to endeavor peace, as far as he has hope of obtaining it; and when he cannot obtain it:
To defend himself; he’s got to fight back
Which of the following are the two primary types of moralities, according to Nietzsche?
Master and slave
Of the following, what is not characteristic of a Nietzschean “master?”
Creates virtue, actively pursues happiness, strive for excellence.
Which of the following best completes the following sentence from Herodotus: "if one were to offer men to choose out of all the customs in the world such as seemed to them the best, they would examine the whole number and in the end...
they would prefer their own.
Which of the following best characterizes what Ruth Benedict says (in her reading) follows from her observation that normality is culturally defined and we find such a diversity of cultures and moral systems in the world?
There is an element of plasticity to be moral
Choose the best option that completes the following sentence: According to Benedict, the deviant in a society is someone who…:
Someone who does not follow the plasticity. Someone who goes against the norm
Which of the following best explains what motivates Benedict to endorse her version of moral relativism?
Cultural diversity
Which of the following are the two theses that Pojman says comprise a main argument for moral relativism?
Diversity and dependencies
Elshtain argues that we should be able to judge so long as we understand what distinction?
Prejudice
Which of the following best characterizes the criticism Elshtain advances for a culture of victimization?
When you make everyone a victim, its easy to lose site of what a real victim is or who the real victim might be.
Which of the following best characterizes Mill’s view of the relationship between a motive for an action and the consequences of that action?
Motive doesn’t matter; it is simply all about consequences. Either positive or negative.
Which of the following best characterizes Mill’s view of rationality?
We would like to maximize pleasure; we have a higher thinking that makes us strive for the most pleasure
Which of the following best characterizes Mill’s response to the worry that people won’t have enough time to perform the calculations needed for utilitarianism?
There is a lot of empirical data. Your own experiences can also be taken into account but the amount of information is very great.
Which of the following best captures what Mill thought was unconditionally good?
Happiness and freedom from pain
What is another name for utilitarianism?
consequentialist
Which of the following best captures Nielsen’s argument that the case of the magistrate and the threatening mob can be decided in favor of not framing and killing the innocent man:
If you do not frame the innocent man than you run the risk of the mob intensifying and cause more harm and destruction. If you wrongfully accuse the innocent man than you are avoiding the punishment of the mob but you are also undermining the entire justice sytem.
Nielsen’s main project in the piece we read (where he lays out an argument for the correct way to judge the case of the magistrate and the angry mob) was to …:
It is defending and refuting utilitarianism. It makes you rethink your own judgments. In some cases utilitarianism can be correct even though you might not think it is or sometimes it can be vice versa. Frame the innocent man.
Williams argues that Utilitarianism is an inappropriate moral theory because it is possible for the utilitarian calculation to promote an action as the “right” action that would violate one’s integrity. What specifically is it that Utilitarianism does not (cannot) take into account that explains how this is possible?
It does not take into account personal integrity, projects, or moral commitments.
Negative responsibility is an important component of Williams’ argument against Utilitarianism and can be BEST described in which of the following ways?
Negative responsibility is being held accountable for things you did NOT do. An example of this is George who has the opportunity to take a job at a chemical weapons factory. If he takes the job, despite being wrong, he could make production move along much slower etc. By not taking the job, someone else will be hired who could speed up or maintain current production rates. So by NOT taking the job, he can be held accountable by negative responsibility
Which of the following is NOT true of the Hedonistic Paradox?
The hedonistic paradox says that if you directly aim at something, you will get less of it in the end. The people who seek immediate pleasure are not maximally happy in the long term. So the best way to be overall happy, is to not aim directly at it, and to aim at enhancing our projects(passions, conerns of people's lives) along the way to get great long-term effects. Projects combine to give you a happy life.
The LeGuin piece entitled “The Ones Who Walk Away From Omelas” employs a science-fiction thought experiment about a utopia dependent on a child’s suffering. This thought experiment raises worries about which moral theory?
Utilitarianism
According to Kant, nothing can be called good, without qualification, except:
Good will
39) Which of the following characters would Kant argue employs a maxim that most clearly demonstrates moral worth?
Categorical imperative: an absolute, unconditional requirement that exerts its authority in all circumstances, both required and justified as an end in itself.
Also motives; act out of motive of duty. Not acting out of duty eliminates character.
Which of the following best characterizes MacIver’s argument for his view that the Golden Rule is the only universal ethical principle?
It is a motive behavior that everyone could adopt
Which of the following best characterizes the Golden Rule?
Treat others as you would like to be treated
Which of the following are among the results of literal compliance with the Golden Rule according to Whately?
There are three cases:
Absurd: A store owner if he were trying to treat the customer as he would like to be treated would like to get the merchandise for free. This would be absurd because the store owner would make no moneys.
Wrong: The jailor if he were the prisoner would want to be set free. But the prisoner is in jail for a reason and it would be wrong to set him free.
Impossible: If two of your friends are arguing over something and they want you to decide who is right, in their shoes you would want to be right but both cannot be right so this is impossible.
Which of the following best describes Whately’s view of the proper role for the Golden Rule?
That it should not be taken literally
Ross makes a distinction between prima facie duty and actual or absolute duty. Whom is he addressing in making such a distinction (whom is he refuting)?
Kant
Which of the following best summarises Ross’ position regarding the coextensiveness of the right and the optimific?
Not co-extensive. Keeping promises is important. You cannot always rate things by amount of good or pleasure that might result. Example: if you promised person A you would do something for them and this would generate 100 pleasure points and person B asked you to do something that would generate 101 pleasure points, you still help person A because breaking the promise and going with person B will result in much more pain for the little bit of maximized pleasure.
Which of the following best describes what optimific means?
Whatever brings about the most good
Nagel says that the problem of moral luck is that we find ourselves trapped between an intuition and a fact. Which of the following best summarizes the intuition Nagel has in mind?
Intuitively we think that moral luck shouldn’t be taken into account in a judgment of a person although in a lot of cases it is. Example: If a guy drives drunk and makes it home with no problems than he still broke the law but nothing happened. Had he left 2 minutes later and hit a person than he would have been caught and broke the law under circumstances that were out of his control.
Nagel’s discussion of moral luck can best be read as a criticism of which of the following philosophers?
Kant
Which of the following best captures the significance of Nagel’s story about the German who moves to South America?
It is a story of moral luck. The story is that there is a man from Germany who if he had stayed in Germany would have become a Nazi, but due to moral luck, he moves to South America. Just because he would have been a Nazi does not mean you can accuse him of being one because he in fact is not.
Which of the following best captures what Aristotle thought was unconditionally good?
Flourishing and rationality. Always want to live a life of rationality.
Which of the following best captures the notion of Aristotle’s Golden Mean:
It is the difference between a vice of excess and a vice of deficiency.
Which of the following best describes what eudaimonia means?
Flourishing
Which of the following are commonly asserted claims about what it requires to be a virtuous individual?
Live a moral life and have good character in general.
What role does Frankena claim virtues play in an adequate ethical system?
Virtues and dispositions provide motivation or desire to act upon something
Which of the following best captures Frankena’s view on the respective limitations of principles and virtues for morality?
Principles supply the foundation or moral context. Principles can’t act alone. They are what the virtues and motivation act on.
Which of the following is a cardinal, first-order moral virtue according to Frankena?
Benevolence
The Sermon on the Mount can be read as condoning the tenets of virtue ethics because it claims which of the following?
Similar to ideals of virtue ethics; striving for perfection always
The parable of the Good Samaritan is a depiction of a virtuous individual because it portrays what event?
A person was mugged and laying on the street and many people just walked right passed and did not help this person but a person from Samarita helped him.
Which of the following best characterizes Hume’s view for rejecting the idea that morality is grounded exclusively in self-love?
It is not grounded in self love because you feel compassion for something that does not directly effect you. Just like tragedies in other countries. It does not effect you directly but you feel compassion and you feel sorry for those people
Which of the following best characterizes Hume’s view about the relationship between moral judgement and aesthetic judgement?
Sentiment is the foundation of both of them. Aesthetic judgment is one made about arts etc. Moral judgment also help us make these judgment about art as well. Judgment of art is rooted in sentiment. Reason refines both of these things.
Which of the following is a characteristic of virtues, according to Hume?
Must be useful and agreeable. Must yield a positive response
Which of the following best characterizes Hume’s view of the role of utility in morality?
Virtuous things are useful to society
What of the following best expresses Epicurus’ view of the pleasure human beings’ should aim towards?
Should aim to live a simple life with many pleasures.
Epicurus says we should aspire to ‘sober reasoning.’ Camus says we should aspire to ‘be aware’ of our lives. Which of the following best captures the difference between these two views?
Epicurus says that through sober reasoning one can develop a better strategy for life instead of stumbling. Camus says to be aware of lives but by doing so we realize our lives are meaningless etc.
Which of the following best expresses Camus’ view what he advocates “belief in the absurd”?
You realize that you don’t get pleasure and you realize that life has no meaning and that life leads to nothing
Which of the following best captures Nozick’s point in the ‘experience machine’ thought experiment?
Nozick is critical of Mill. Through using the experience machine he is refuting utilitarianism. Since the machine is to produce maximum good but yet nobody would like to be hooked up to it, it shows that there must be something wrong with utilitarianism
Which of the following best captures what a utilitarian might say about the ‘experience machine’?
They would probably think it would be a good thing to be strapped to this machine
Which of the following best captures what Kant might say about the ‘experience machine’?
Kant would say use the machine because if you didn’t he would say you are giving up your rational faculties.
Why does Rand say it is wrong to submit to someone’s demand that you help them?
When somebody makes a claim on you they are claiming your life as theirs. By giving in you are giving yourself up along with YOUR wants and needs
Which of the following best states Rand’s form of ethical egoism?
One should always pursue their own self interest and self preservation ALWAYS
Which of the following options best captures what Ayn Rand likely thought was unconditionally good?
Self interest
Hobbes and Rand would disagree about where practical rationality leads us in terms of morality. Which of the following best captures their respective positions?
Both opinions are in respect to human nature motivated by self preservation.
Hobbes thinks that we ought to cooperate
Rand says that rationality leads to pursuing your own self interest and is concerned with self interest mainly.
Which of the following best captures Rachels’ objection to Rand?
Rand wants to privilege own happiness over the happiness of others. Rachel says you cannot do this because you are being partial to yourself.
Which of the following best captures Rachels’ reasoning for arguing that we have a moral obligation to help others?
Because we have a moral obligation to others
In the Ring of Gyges excerpt, which of the following best expresses Socrates’ argument that one should act justly?
Because if you are acting unjustly you are doing yourself a disservice
Which of the following best captures the point that Glaucon was trying to make with the ring of Gyges thought experiment?
That people only value in the views of consequences
In the Ring of Gyges excerpt, which of the following best characterizes Socrates’ view of justice?
Socrates says that justice is valuable for its own sake; not just to avoid punishment. We all follow it
Which of the following best captures Hill’s reason(s) for contending that servility is a moral defect (p. 695)?
It is a moral defect because people fail to acknowledge his or her own rights
Which of the following is NOT an example of servility according to Hill?
Deferential wife, self deprecator, and the Uncle Tom. Anything except these 3
Which of the following best explains how the self-deprecator comes to adopt a servile attitude?
They don’t think that they have earned the right to have rights themselves. They are confused because we are all born with rights and they do not need to be earned
Which of the following is a kind of mode of reliance that Benson contrasts with autonomy?
Partially reflective or un-reflective
The LeGuin piece entitled “The Ones Who Walk Away From Omelas” employs a science-fiction thought experiment about a utopia dependent on a child’s suffering. This thought experiment raises worries about which moral theory?
Utilitarianism
According to Kant, nothing can be called good, without qualification, except:
Good will
39) Which of the following characters would Kant argue employs a maxim that most clearly demonstrates moral worth?
Categorical imperative: an absolute, unconditional requirement that exerts its authority in all circumstances, both required and justified as an end in itself.
Also motives; act out of motive of duty. Not acting out of duty eliminates character.
Which of the following best characterizes MacIver’s argument for his view that the Golden Rule is the only universal ethical principle?
It is a motive behavior that everyone could adopt
Which of the following best characterizes the Golden Rule?
Treat others as you would like to be treated
Which of the following are among the results of literal compliance with the Golden Rule according to Whately?
There are three cases:
Absurd: A store owner if he were trying to treat the customer as he would like to be treated would like to get the merchandise for free. This would be absurd because the store owner would make no moneys.
Wrong: The jailor if he were the prisoner would want to be set free. But the prisoner is in jail for a reason and it would be wrong to set him free.
Impossible: If two of your friends are arguing over something and they want you to decide who is right, in their shoes you would want to be right but both cannot be right so this is impossible.
Which of the following best describes Whately’s view of the proper role for the Golden Rule?
That it should not be taken literally
Ross makes a distinction between prima facie duty and actual or absolute duty. Whom is he addressing in making such a distinction (whom is he refuting)?
Kant
Which of the following best summarises Ross’ position regarding the coextensiveness of the right and the optimific?
Not co-extensive. Keeping promises is important. You cannot always rate things by amount of good or pleasure that might result. Example: if you promised person A you would do something for them and this would generate 100 pleasure points and person B asked you to do something that would generate 101 pleasure points, you still help person A because breaking the promise and going with person B will result in much more pain for the little bit of maximized pleasure.
Which of the following best describes what optimific means?
Whatever brings about the most good
Nagel says that the problem of moral luck is that we find ourselves trapped between an intuition and a fact. Which of the following best summarizes the intuition Nagel has in mind?
Intuitively we think that moral luck shouldn’t be taken into account in a judgment of a person although in a lot of cases it is. Example: If a guy drives drunk and makes it home with no problems than he still broke the law but nothing happened. Had he left 2 minutes later and hit a person than he would have been caught and broke the law under circumstances that were out of his control.
Nagel’s discussion of moral luck can best be read as a criticism of which of the following philosophers?
Kant
Which of the following best captures the significance of Nagel’s story about the German who moves to South America?
It is a story of moral luck. The story is that there is a man from Germany who if he had stayed in Germany would have become a Nazi, but due to moral luck, he moves to South America. Just because he would have been a Nazi does not mean you can accuse him of being one because he in fact is not.
Which of the following best captures what Aristotle thought was unconditionally good?
Flourishing and rationality. Always want to live a life of rationality.
Which of the following best captures the notion of Aristotle’s Golden Mean:
It is the difference between a vice of excess and a vice of deficiency.
Choose the best option that completes the following sentence: According to Benedict, the deviant in a society is someone who…:
Someone who does not follow the plasticity. Someone who goes against the norm
Which of the following best explains what motivates Benedict to endorse her version of moral relativism?
Cultural diversity
Which of the following are the two theses that Pojman says comprise a main argument for moral relativism?
Diversity and dependencies
Elshtain argues that we should be able to judge so long as we understand what distinction?
Prejudice
Which of the following best characterizes the criticism Elshtain advances for a culture of victimization?
When you make everyone a victim, its easy to lose site of what a real victim is or who the real victim might be.
Which of the following best characterizes Mill’s view of the relationship between a motive for an action and the consequences of that action?
Motive doesn’t matter; it is simply all about consequences. Either positive or negative.
Which of the following best characterizes Mill’s view of rationality?
We would like to maximize pleasure; we have a higher thinking that makes us strive for the most pleasure
Which of the following best characterizes Mill’s response to the worry that people won’t have enough time to perform the calculations needed for utilitarianism?
There is a lot of empirical data. Your own experiences can also be taken into account but the amount of information is very great.
Which of the following best captures what Mill thought was unconditionally good?
Happiness and freedom from pain
What is another name for utilitarianism?
consequentialist
Which of the following best captures Nielsen’s argument that the case of the magistrate and the threatening mob can be decided in favor of not framing and killing the innocent man:
If you do not frame the innocent man than you run the risk of the mob intensifying and cause more harm and destruction. If you wrongfully accuse the innocent man than you are avoiding the punishment of the mob but you are also undermining the entire justice sytem.
Nielsen’s main project in the piece we read (where he lays out an argument for the correct way to judge the case of the magistrate and the angry mob) was to …:
It is defending and refuting utilitarianism. It makes you rethink your own judgments. In some cases utilitarianism can be correct even though you might not think it is or sometimes it can be vice versa. Frame the innocent man.
Williams argues that Utilitarianism is an inappropriate moral theory because it is possible for the utilitarian calculation to promote an action as the “right” action that would violate one’s integrity. What specifically is it that Utilitarianism does not (cannot) take into account that explains how this is possible?
It does not take into account personal integrity, projects, or moral commitments.
Negative responsibility is an important component of Williams’ argument against Utilitarianism and can be BEST described in which of the following ways?
Negative responsibility is being held accountable for things you did NOT do. An example of this is George who has the opportunity to take a job at a chemical weapons factory. If he takes the job, despite being wrong, he could make production move along much slower etc. By not taking the job, someone else will be hired who could speed up or maintain current production rates. So by NOT taking the job, he can be held accountable by negative responsibility
Which of the following is NOT true of the Hedonistic Paradox?
The hedonistic paradox says that if you directly aim at something, you will get less of it in the end. The people who seek immediate pleasure are not maximally happy in the long term. So the best way to be overall happy, is to not aim directly at it, and to aim at enhancing our projects(passions, conerns of people's lives) along the way to get great long-term effects. Projects combine to give you a happy life.
Which of the following best captures Nozick’s point in the ‘experience machine’ thought experiment?
Nozick is critical of Mill. Through using the experience machine he is refuting utilitarianism. Since the machine is to produce maximum good but yet nobody would like to be hooked up to it, it shows that there must be something wrong with utilitarianism
Which of the following best captures what a utilitarian might say about the ‘experience machine’?
They would probably think it would be a good thing to be strapped to this machine
Which of the following best captures what Kant might say about the ‘experience machine’?
Kant would say use the machine because if you didn’t he would say you are giving up your rational faculties.
Why does Rand say it is wrong to submit to someone’s demand that you help them?
When somebody makes a claim on you they are claiming your life as theirs. By giving in you are giving yourself up along with YOUR wants and needs
Which of the following best states Rand’s form of ethical egoism?
One should always pursue their own self interest and self preservation ALWAYS
Which of the following options best captures what Ayn Rand likely thought was unconditionally good?
Self interest
Hobbes and Rand would disagree about where practical rationality leads us in terms of morality. Which of the following best captures their respective positions?
Both opinions are in respect to human nature motivated by self preservation.
Hobbes thinks that we ought to cooperate
Rand says that rationality leads to pursuing your own self interest and is concerned with self interest mainly.
Which of the following best captures Rachels’ objection to Rand?
Rand wants to privilege own happiness over the happiness of others. Rachel says you cannot do this because you are being partial to yourself
Which of the following best captures Rachels’ reasoning for arguing that we have a moral obligation to help others?
Because we have a moral obligation to others
In the Ring of Gyges excerpt, which of the following best expresses Socrates’ argument that one should act justly?
Because if you are acting unjustly you are doing yourself a disservice
Which of the following best captures the point that Glaucon was trying to make with the ring of Gyges thought experiment?
That people only value in the views of consequences
In the Ring of Gyges excerpt, which of the following best characterizes Socrates’ view of justice?
Socrates says that justice is valuable for its own sake; not just to avoid punishment. We all follow it.
Which of the following best captures Hill’s reason(s) for contending that servility is a moral defect (p. 695)?
It is a moral defect because people fail to acknowledge his or her own rights.
Which of the following is NOT an example of servility according to Hill?
Deferential wife, self deprecator, and the Uncle Tom. Anything except these 3
Which of the following best explains how the self-deprecator comes to adopt a servile attitude?
They don’t think that they have earned the right to have rights themselves. They are confused because we are all born with rights and they do not need to be earned
Which of the following is a kind of mode of reliance that Benson contrasts with autonomy?
Partially reflective or un-reflective
According to Benson, someone who fails to have the kind of autonomy that enables one to perform tasks that provide for one’s basic, everyday needs will experience a diminished sense of which of the following?
Integrity and self respect
Which of the following best describes how Oblonsky from Anna Karenina displays the unreflective acceptance of authority mode of reliance?
Listens and goes with the flow
Which of the following best captures what Hume might say about the results of the Milgram experiment?
Hume says it is not virtuous because the reaction is negative. It is not usuable or agreeable to society.
Martha Nussbaum presents an excerpt from Adam Smith, in which Smith describes a man losing his little finger. Which of the following best characterizes Smith’s point in that passage?
Proximity plays a big role in your sense of compassion. If something happens to your friend’s little finger you will feel more compassion for him or her rather than something that happened to somebody in a foreign country even though the other incident may be much more severe
According to Nussbaum, which of the following best captures the central message of Euripides’ play The Trojan Women?
It is trying to show the importance of compassion
Which of the following most adequately expresses MacIntyre’s position regarding the debate between patriotism and liberalism?
There is tension between the 2. Patriotism requires partiality for your own country. Liberalism is not supposed to be objective like that
Which of the following is characteristic of patriotism, as conceived by MacIntyre?
It is a historical project that is rooted in history and has moral significance
According to the morality of liberalism delineated in MacIntyre’s paper, why is patriotism irrational?
Patriotism requires partiality
Given MacIntyre’s conception of liberalism, which of the following best reflects a correct categorization of Aristotle, Kant, Nietzsche and the utilitarians?
MacIntyre believes that liberalism is about impartiality.
Utilitarianisms and Kant will agree with this opinion.
Nietzsche and Aristotle do not believe in this because they don’t believe that every is equal.
Which of the following best captures McMurtry’s basic criticism of institutions of monogamy?
It reduces the relationship to property
Which of the following best captures Bayles’ reason(s) for rejecting McMurtry’s argument that monogamy restricts the care for children?
He argues that kids can become lost if they don’t have both parents raising them. Says more troubled children come from broken homes. It also means that they are not cut off from the care of others like the immediate family members etc
Which of the following best captures why Bayles argues that monogamy is morally superior to vulgar hedonism?
Vulgar hedonism is life ratification or cheating yourself
Which of the following best captures the two important things that Bayles argues marriage accomplishes?
1. Intrapersonal Relationships-monogamous relationships are good for stable, solid intimate relations.
2. Raising Children
Which of the following best captures Kant’s description of matrimony?
He thinks it is a reciprocal exchange of property. That when you marry someone they become your property and you theirs.
Which of the following best captures Kant’s reason(s) for saying that sex “ is a principle of degradation of human nature”?
You desire someone for an object of pleasure and it reduces them as a means of getting something instead of being a person.
Which of the following best captures Kant’s reason(s) for saying that marriage is the only morally acceptable context for sex?
He says this because when you are married you give yourself to somebody and they give themselves to you and by doing this you win yourself back by gaining this other person.
Which of the following are reasons that Steinbock argues adultery is wrong?
It involves deception
Which of the following best captures Steinbock’s ultimate view of adultery?
He does not think it is good. Thinks it involves deception. However he believes there are circumstances where it can be not right but not AS bad. Example: a man is married to a woman who contracts polio. He has an affair with the lady next door. Although this is bad, it is much better than leaving his wife who is sick and helpless.
Which of the following best describes Steinbock’s opinion of ‘open marriages’?
It would lead to neglect, jealousy, and many other things.
Which of the following best captures the normative emphasis of Mill’s argument regarding liberty?
Liberty and freedom are connected. People should have control to live their lives how they want. There is a VERY strong commitment to LIBERTY.
Does Mill allow exceptions to the application of his principle of liberty? If so, what is it/what are they?
The only application is mainly for children because they are under control of their parents and sometimes don’t know what is best for them. Also in instances when you are defending yourself/self defense.
Which of the following best captures what, according to Mill, is the only justified reason for a group to exert power over an individual member, against his/her will?
Self protection
In his argument for the legalization of drugs, Vidal appeals to the creation of the United States. In doing so, Vidal employs an argument very similar to which of the following thinkers?
Nill because of liberty/freedom. You should be able to do whatever makes you happy.
Which of the following points does Vidal offer in his argument for the legalization of drugs?
He says it will reduce the number of addicts
Which of the following best captures what, according to Bennett, is the most compelling argument against the legalization of drugs?
It takes away from your moral autonomy. Once you are an addict you are no longer in control of what you do, your addiction controls you
Which of the following best captures Bennett’s argument in favor of legislation that prohibits drug use?
It will lead to more bad than good. It is a slippery slope argument
Peter Singer argues that because animals can suffer and because preventing suffering is of fundamental moral significance, animals are entitled to moral consideration. Based on this description, which normative theory does Singer most likely endorse?
Utilitarianism.
Which of the following are problems Pojman describes for the view that moral claims gain their moral validity from cultural acceptance?
Ethical relativism. Somebody that goes against the norm is not accepted. People like Martin Luther King Jr. are not accepted because they are breaking away from the norm. Also Adolf Hitler could be praised for his genocide if it were the norm and was culturally accepted.
Nielsen’s moral conservative opponents argue that the consequentialist project of performing the utilitarian calculation each time when deciding whether or not to do drastic things (like killing people) sets a dangerous precedent, wherein people are allowed to rationalize their actions in favor of their own advantage. Which best describes why Nielsen claims that the conservative cannot have access to this line of reason?
A conservative cannot reason this way because they try to find the best solution without any innocent lives being taken which in some cases is inevitable
Which of the following is the first formulation of Kant’s categorical imperative?
One should act as if their actions are by their will to become a universal law.
What are Nagel’s four forms of moral luck?
1. Luck in the way one's action and projects turn out
2. Luck in how one is determined by antecedent circumstances
3. Constitutive luck- "the kind of person you are, where this is not just a question of what you deliverately do, but of your inclinations, capacities, and temperament"
4. Circumstancial luck- if circumstances had been different, the judgment of your act would have been assessed differently.
53) According to Aristotle, actions that are to be considered virtuous must meet which of the following criteria?
1. he must know what he is doing
2. he must deliberately choose to do it and do it for its own sake
3. He must do it as part of his own firm and immutable character.
Which of the following is NOT one of the problems that Nussbaum cites for the view that our central moral notion should be a respect for dignity?
1. A principled, even handed motive for good treatment of all human beings
2. license to quietism and indifference to things in the world, on the grounds that nothing that happens to people is really bad.
3. Watery motivation. We like to do things that benefit ourselves. We only care for the things that are ours only or that we have only one of.
Which of the following is NOT one of the four principles McMurtry argues makes monogamy wrong?
1. The partners are required to enter a formal conractual relation
2. The number of partners involved in the marriage must be two and ONLY two
3. No preson may participate in more than one marriage at a time or during a lifetime
4. No married person may engage in any sexual relationship with any other person other than the marriage partner.
Which of the following are among the social problems McMurtry argues follow from the four principles of monogamy?
1. The restriction of marriage union to two partners necessarily prevents the strengths of larger groupings
2. The sexual containment and isolation that the four principles together require variously stimulates such social malaises
Normative theories we have studied
Moral relativism, Utilitarianism, morality, deontology, virtue ethics, Hedonism, Egoism, servility, autonomy, patriotism