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38 Cards in this Set

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How does the structure of the cell contribute to its function?
The number and the type of organelles within each cell determine the cell's specific structure and function.
Ex. Large amount of protein will create a cell that secrete protein.
Cell Structure
Compose of highly organized unit, specialized structures call organelles which perform specific functions. Contains a nucleus and cytoplasm.
Cell structure:nucleus
An organelle containing the cell's genetic material.
Cell structure:Cytoplasm
The living material surround the nucleus.
List the six main functions of a cell:
1. Basic unit of life.
2. Protection and support.
3. Movement.
4. Communication.
5. Cell metabolism and energy release.
6. Inheritance.

***LOOK at HINT***
1.Smallest part of organisms that still retail all characteristics of life.
2.Cells make up the bones and tissue, etc of our body therefore protecting and supporting.
3.Due to molecules located within specific cells such as muscle.
4.Cells produce and receive chemical and electronic signals that allow the the cells to communicate with one another.
5.Cell metabolism being the chemical reactions that occur within the cell. During metabolism energy is released in used for cell activities.
6.Specialized cells (sperm and occytes) transmit genetic info to the next generation.
Describe the structure of the cell membrane
The physical barrier between the inside of the cell (intracellular substance) and the outside of the cell (extracellular substance).
Major molecules include phospholipids bilayer and proteins.
List the four ways a substance can cross the cell membrane:
1. Directly through the phospholipid membrane.
2. Membrane channel.
3. Carrier molecule.
4. Vesicles.

***LOOK at HINT***
1.Molecules that are soluble in lipids such as O, C dioxide, and steroids pass through the membrane by dissolving in the phospholipid bylayer.
2.A large protein which acts as a tunnel from the inside out, several diff. types, allowing only certain molecules to pass through it. The size, shape, and charge of molecule determines whether they can pass through each kind of channel.
3.A carrier molecule transports substance across the membrane which is a protein that extend from the inside out of a cell and binds to a molecule to be transported and moves them across the membrane. Just like the channels there are diff. types and they carry a specific substance. Amino acids and glucose.
4. A non lipid-soluble membrane-bound sac which allows contents of the vesicle to cross the cell membrane.
Explain the role of osmosis and that of osmotic pressure in controlling the movement of water across the cell membrane.
Osmosis is the movement of water molecules across the cell membrane. If the osmotic pressure is high; there are more water molecules inside the cell then outside the cell then water moves out to lessen the pressure. If the osmotic pressure is very low then water molecules move into the cell to keep the pressure outside and inside equal.
hypotonic solution
A solution that causes a cell to swell, possibly rupture or lysis, due to (usually) having a lower concentration of solutes and a higher concentration of water than the cytoplasm of the cell. The solution has less osmotic pressure than the cell. Osmosis causes a net flow of water into the cell.
isotonic solutoin
A solution that causes cells to neither to shrink or swell. The solution concentration of various solutes and water are the same on both sides of the cell membrane, therefore the osmosis pressure is equal.
hypertonic solution
A solution that causes a cell to shrink (known as crenation) due to the solution having a higher concentration of solutes and lower concentration of water that the cytoplasm of the cell. Water moves from the cell by osmosis into the the solution.
Mediated transport
Functions to move large, water-soluble molecules or electrically charged ions across the cell membrane. There are three types and only specific molecules are transported by the carrier molecules. The three are called Facilitated diffusion, active transport, and secondary active transport.
p 50
Facilitated diffusion
A carrier-mediated transport process that moves substance into and out of cells from a higher to lower concentration of that substance. No ATP is require because the movement is with the concentration gradient.
p 50
Active transportation
A carrier-mediated process that moves substance across the cell membrane from regions of lower concentration to those of areas of higher concentration against a concentration gradient. Requires ATP.
p 50
Secondary active transport
The active transport of one substance, such as Na+, across the cell membrane, establishing a concentration gradient.
p 51
The uptake of materials by cells. Using a process called receptor-mediated endocytosis, the cell membrane forms a vesicle containing the specific substance to be taken into the cell, binding to the receptor molecule, endocytosis is triggered, and the substance is transported into the cell.
p 51-52
The release of materials from cells. Sacs called aecretory vesicles accumulate materials for release from the cell, moves to the cell membrane, where the vesicle membrane fuses with the cell membrane, and the material is eliminated from the vesicle and the cell.
p 52
A large organelle ususally located near the center of the cell. Contains coiled fibers called chromatin consisting of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and proteins. Those fibers come more tightly coiled during cell division to form 23 pair of chromosomes. The genes that influence the structural and functional features of every portion of DNA molecules, which determine the structure of the protein, determining cell structure and function.
p 54
Little nucleus, number from one to four per nucleus, rounded, dense, well defined nuclear bodies with no surrounding membrane. Subunits of ribosomes are manufactured within the nucleolus.
p 54
endoplasmic reticulum
A series of membranes forming sacs and tubules that extend from the outer nuclear membrane into the cytoplasm. (ER)

Rough ER has ribosomes attached to it, a large amount indicates that it is synthesizing large amounts of protein for export from the cell.

Smooth ER is ER without ribosomes, a site for lipid synthesis and also participates in detoxification of chemicals within cells.
p 55
What is the role of Golgi apparatuses in secretion?
Golgi apparatus consists of closely packed stacks of curved, membrane-bound sacs. Its role it to collect, modify, package, and distribute proteins and lipids manufactured from the ER (or the secrection).
p 55
What is the role of secretory vesicles in secretion?
A vesicle is a small, membrane-bound sac that transports or stores material within cells. Secratory vesicles pinch off from the Golgi apparatus and move the secrection tothe surface of the cell membrane, and the contents of the vesicles are released to the exterior of the cell.
p 55
Membrane-bound vesicles formed from the Golgi apparatus, which contain a variety of enzymes that function as intracellualr digestive systems.
p 55
Small membrane bound vesicles containing enzymes that break down fatty acid, amino acids, and hydrogen peroxide.
p 57
A term often used for endocytosis when solid particles are ingested.
p 52
What is the structure mitochondri?
The structure of mitochondri are small, bean-shaped, rod-shaped, or long, threadlike organelles with inner and outer membranes separated by a space. The outer membrane is smooth, but the inner membrane is cristac, numerous folds, like shelfs in the interior of the mitochondria.
p 57
What is the function of mitochondri?
The major site of ATP adenosine triphosphate prodution within cells. Which a major energy source for most chemical reacions within the cell.
p 57
What is the structure and function of centrioles?
Small, cylindrical organelle composed of nine triplets, each consisting of three paralled microtubules joined together. During cell division, additional microtubules, extending from the area of the centrioles, facilitate the movement of chromosomes toward the centrosomes.

Centrosomes is a specialized zone of cytoplasm cles to the nucleus that is the center of microtubule formation.
p 58-59
Project form the surface of the cells, and are capalbe of active moving, varing from none to thousands per cell. Has a cylindrical shape, contain specialed microtubules similar to centrioles, and are enclosed by the cell membrane.

Ex. Numerous in the repiratory tract where they move mucus, upward and away from the lungs.
p 59
Structure is similar to cilia but much longer, and usually only one per cell.

Ex. Sperm have one flagellum, which function to propel the sperm cell.
p 59
Specialized extension of the cell membrane that are suppored by microfilaments, but they do not actively move like cilia and flagella. They are numerous on cells that have them and function to increase the surface area of the those cells.

Ex. The surface of the kidney and intestine, have them for absorption.
p 59
Describe the process of protein synthesis
In short is is making a copy of part of the info in DNA(a gene), and translation, converting that copied info into protein.

The copy is the messenger RNA mRNA which travels from the nuclues to the ribosomes. The substance is needed to construct a protein so a transfer RNA or tRNA carries amino acids to the ribosome and you have portein synthesis.
p 60-61
The new cells necessary for growth and tissue repair are formed through _______, and the sex cells necessary for reporduction are formed through _______.
The new cells necessary for growth and tissue repair are formed through MITOSIS, and the sex cells necessary for reporduction are formed through MEIOSIS.
The process by which cells develop with specialized structures and function, results from the selective activation and inactivation of DNA sections.
p 66
List the 5 major theories of aging
1. Cellular clock
2. Death genes
3. DNA damage
4. Free radicals
5. Mitochondrial damage
p 68
1. Suggest that after a certain passage of time or a certain number of cell division, results in death of a given cell line.
2. Turns on later in life causing cells to deteriorate and die.
3. Though time DNA is damaged, resulting in cell degeneration and death.
4. Damage from atoms or molecules with an unpaired electron.
5. Suggest that mitochondrial DNA is more sensitive to free radical damage than nucleic DNA and since it is vital for ATP production, as it is damage less ATP is produce is so on.
The movement of a solute from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration within a solvent.
The passage of a solution through a partition in response to pressure difference. Some materials, usually larger particles, in the solution do not pass through the partition.
What is the structure in funciton of cytoskeleton?
Composed of microtuvules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments. It supports the cytoplasm and organelles and is involved with cell movement.