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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Anything that occupies space and has mass.
page 20
The amount of matter in an object.
page 20
The gravitational force acting on an object of a given mass.
page 20
The simplest type of matter with unique chemical properties. As of March 1996, 112 elements are known.
page 20
The smallest particle of an element that has the chemical characteristics of that element. An element is is composed of only one type of atom.
page 20
List the three subatomic particles of an atom and their charge:
-Neutrons-no electrical charge
-Protons-positive charge
-Electrons-negative charge
page 21
What forms the nucleus of an atom?
Protons and nuetrons
page 21
The nucleus accounts for ______ of an atom's mass, but only _ _____________ of its volume.
The nucleus accounts for 99.97% of an atom's mass, but only 1 tentrillionth of its volume.
page 21
Atomic number
The number of protons in each atom, and is equal to the amount of elctrons if the atom has no charge.
page 21
Atom or group of atoms carrying an electrical charge because of a loss or gain of one or more electrons.
page 22 and glossary
Ionic bonding
Chemical bond where an atoms gains or loses an electron to form a complete outer shell. Ex. Atom A has 2 ele on inner shell and 6 on the outer. Atom B has 2 on inner and 2 on outer. Atom B bonds with A giving up the 2 outer ele, etc.
page 22 and glossary
Covalent bond
Chemical bond that is formed when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons. Neither of the atoms loses a electron. The reason covalent bonds form is each atom is trying to fill its outer electron shell.
page 23 and glossary
Polar covalent bond
Polar is when electrons are shared unequally between two atoms, causing an unequal asynnetrical sharing molecules.
Nonpolar bond has a symmetrical (equal) electrical charge.
page 23 and glossary
Hydrogen bond
The weak attraction between the oppositely charged ends of two polar covalent molecules; the weak attraction between the end of a polar covalent molecute and an ion.
page 23 and glossary
Two or more atoms chemically combine to form a structure which behaves as an independent unit.
page 23 and glossary
A substance composed of two or more different types of atoms that are chemically combined.
page 24
Are all molecules compound?
No, for example, not all molecules have different types of atoms, like hydrogen.
page 24
What happens to ionic compounds when they dissolve in water?
the ions dissociate, or separate, from each other because the positively charged ions are attracted to the negative ends of the water molecules, and the negatively charged ions are attracted to the positive ends of the water molecules.
page 24
Chemical reaction
When atoms, ions, molecules, or compounds interact either to form or to break chemical bonds. The substances that enter into a chemical reacion are called the reactants, and the substances that result from the chemical reaction are called the products.
page 25
List and brefily define the classification of chemical reactions for our purpose:
sysnthesis, decomposition, & exchange
-Synthesis reaction-When two or more reactants combine to form a larger, more complex product.

-Decomposition reaction-When reactants are broken down into smaller, less comples products.

-Exchange reaction-A combination of a decompostion and a synthesis reaction.
page 25 & 27
Reversible reaction
A chemical reaction in which the reaction can proceed from reactants to products and from products to reactants. When the rate of product formation is equal to the rate of reactant formation, the reaction is said to be at equilibrium.
page 27
Define energy and the two subdivisions of energy
Energy-The capacity to do work.

Potential energy-stored energy that could do work but is not doing so.

Kinetic energy-Energy caused by the movement of an object and is the form of energy that actually does work.
page 27
A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction, without itself being permanently changed or depleted.
page 29
Acids and bases in relation to protons
Acids are proton donors, and bases are protons acceptors.
page 29
pH scale
A neutral solution has an equal number of H+ and OH- and a ph of 7.0.
An acidic solution has more H+ than OH- and a pH of less than 7.0.
A basic solution has fewer H+ than OH-and pH greater than 7.0
page 29
When is salt formed?
Salt is formed when an acid reacts with a base.
page 29
A chemical that resists changes in pH when either an acid or a base is added to a soulution containing the buffer.
page 29
What is the difference between inorganic chemistry and organic chemistry?
Inorganic chemistry deals with those substances that do not contain carbon, whereas organic chemistry is the study of carbon-containing substances. Few exceptions, like carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide are inorganic even though they contain carbon.
Describe the makeup of oxygen:
It is an inorganic molecule consisting of two oxygen atoms bound together by a double covalent bond.
page 30
Describe the makeup of carbon dioxide:
It consist of one carbon atom double covalent bond to two oxygen atoms.
page 30
Describe the makeup of water:
It is an inorganic molecule that consist of atom of oxygen joined by polar covalent bonds to two atoms of hydrogen.
page 30
List the important properties water serves for living organisms: (4)
1. Stabilizing the body temperature

2. Protection

3. Chemical reactions

4. Transportation
page 30
Define organic and list the four major groups of organic molecules essential to living organisms.
Molecules that contain a carbon atom (carbon dioxide is an exception)

The four major groups are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
page 31 and glossary

(Provides body with...
made of....)
Provide the body with energy, and is composed of C, H, and O atoms.
page 31
What are the basis carbohydrate units?
-Monosaccharides or simple sugar, which is the smallest carbohydrates including glucose and fructose.

-Daaccharides are two joined monosaccharides. For example glucose and fructose combine to form disaccharide sucrose (table salt).

-Polysaccharides are many monosaccharides bound bound in long chains
page 31 and internet
Lipids serve many functions in living organisms including energy storage, serve as structural components of cell membranes, and constitute important signaling molecules.
Composed mainly of C,H, O; but other elements such as P and N are minor components of some lipids.
page 31-32 and internet
(Composed of...)
Essential funciton of organisms which participate in every process within cells.
Contain C, H, O, and N.
page 35 and internet
amino acid

(what functional groups make amino acid?)
(building unit for...)
A molecule that contains both amine and carboxyl functional groups.
Amino acids are the basic structural building units of proteins. They form short polymer chains called peptides or longer chains either called polypeptides or proteins.
Is a protein that speeds up chemical reaction in the cell. It contains an active site which only activates the enzyme when specific substrate molecules or reactants. Binding occurs at the site, forming a enzyme-substrate, thus forming a different molecule (new product), other enzymes use one substrate to form two molecules.
page 36
Deoxyribonucleic acid(DNA)
The genetic material of cells, and copies of DNA are transferred from one generation of cells to the next. DNA contains the information that determines the structure of proteins.
page 37
Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
Is structurally related to DNA, and three types of RNA also play important roles in protein synthesis. Associated with certain proteins to form ribosomes, small, spherical, cytoplasmic organelle where protein synthesis occurs.
page 37 and glossary
Adenosine triphosphate
An especially important organ molecule found in all living organisms. Stores energy derived from catabolism. The energy is released from ATP and is used in anabolism and other cell processes.
page 37-40
Ionic bonding is a result of
between ions of opposite charge.
The movement of a substance from an area where it is under high concentration to an area where it is low concentration.
All molecules are in ________ motion,...
constant motion, unless an absolute zero, the motion is random with the molecules moving in straight lines until they encounter other molecules.
The net movement of water molecules across a membrane from an area of high water concentration to one of low concentration.
What is a biochemical pathway?
A specific pathway of enzymes which convert a substrate from enzyme A for a product to be conver by enzyme B than B for C, etc. Until a final product is produced.
Explain feedback inhibition of biochemical pathway:

What is the site called that shuts down production.
When enough of the feedback is produce to reach the environment, production is shut down by one of the final products connecting to the first enzyme at the allosteric site causing the enzyme to undergo a change in no longer react with the substrates.

allosteric site
Functional Group:
(R stands for hydrocarbon, - colvalent bond, = double colvalent bond)
Functional Group:
(R stands for hydrocarbon, - colvalent bond, = double colvalent bond)
Functional Group:
(R stands for hydrocarbon, - colvalent bond, = double colvalent bond)
Functional Group:
(R stands for hydrocarbon, - colvalent bond, = double colvalent bond)
Functional Group:
(R stands for hydrocarbon, - colvalent bond, = double colvalent bond)
Functional Group:
(R stands for hydrocarbon, - colvalent bond, = double colvalent bond)
. H
. /
. \
. H
Although it is impossible to know precisely where any given electron is located, what is the region where electrons are most likely to found called?
electron cloud
Mass number (atomic structure)
the number of protons plus the number of neutrons in each atom.
The separation of ions in an ionic compound by polar water molecules.
summary p 39