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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Scientific Method
a systematic approach to problem solving
Hypothesis
a testable prediction
Formatting a Hypothesis
If, then
If independent variable is related to the depedent variable, then a prediction can be made
Variables
Independent-doesn't depend on anything else
Dependent-depends on other things
Control-does not contain the variable
Table
variable names
units
titles
Graphs
variables names
units
title
key
lots of space used
Drawings
variable names
units
title
capital labels
detail
Conclusion
discuss data, purpose, hypothesis, errors, and room for improvement
Theory
well tested explanation of a large variety of observations
Law
scientific thoery that is well-tested and widely accepted as true
Rotation
spinning around an axis causing day and night
Revolution
movement of an object around another object causing Earth's year
Kinds of Satellites
Natural and Artificial
Low-orbits
make several orbits each day
Geosynchronous
orbit at the same speed as the earth so they always stay in the same spot
Moon
doesn't have it's own light
orbits every 28 days--same as earth
Phases of the Moon
Waxing-getting larger
Waning-getting smaller
Why do we only see one side of the moon
revolves and rotates at the same speed of the Earth
Lunar Eclipse
during a full moon the moon is in earth's shadow
Solar Eclipse
during a new moon, the moon is between the sun and the earth
Umbra
darkest part of the moons shadow
Penumbra
lightest part of the moons shadow
Maria
seas of basaltic lave
Highlands
craters that we can see because there is no erosion
Moon Facts
1/6 gravity
no atmosphere
no erosion
no oil
no plants
frozen water at poles
Origin of the Moon
a large object crashes into earth, breaking a piece of it off which started to orbit the Earth
Parts of the Sun
Interior
Photosphere
Chromosphere
Corona
Photopshere
light part of the sun
Chromosphere
red rim of hot gases
Corona
outer rim of the sun
Sunspots
dark, cooler, magnetic regions on the surface of the sun
cyclic-11yrs
Solar Flares
brief outbursts that cause solar winds to intensify and we see auroras
Prominence
cloud-like structures made of gases on the sun
Interior
nuclear fusion happens when hydrogen becomes helium producing light and heat energy
Mineral
a solid, naturally occuring in organic substance composed of an element or compound with a fixed chemical composition
Abundant elements and the group they make up
Si and O; silicates
Mineral Uses
Halite-salt
Gypsum-plaster
Talc-talcum powder
Pyrite-batteries
Rocks
aggregates of one or more minerals
Rock Cycle
process by which each rock type is formed
Igneous
-cool slowly or quickly to develop a fine or course texture
-classified according to texture and composition
Types of Igneous we've seen
granite, basalt, obsidian, pumice
Bowen's reaction Series
indicates minerals which crystallize first, second, third, etc. according to temperature
Sedimentary
originate from weathered material, detrial, or clastic, or chemical
Limestone
Sedimentary
Fizzes because it's mainly made of calcite
How sedimentary is formed and some features
by deposition, then compaction, then cementation until lithified; ripples, animals, mudcracks, cross-bedding
Metamorphic
-heat, pressure, and fluids
-had to have a parent rock
-foliated (layers) or non-foliated
Weathering
physical breakdown and chemical alteration of rocks
Kinds of Weathering
Mechanical-breaks into smaller pieces
Chemical-acid rain, oxygen
Erosion
physical removal of material by mobile agents
Soil
combination of mineral and organic matter, water, and air
Humus
organic matter in soil from the decomposition of plants and animals. retains water well
Composition of soil
Half humus and mineral matter
half pore space for air and water
Loam
type of soil texture where neither sand, silt, or clay is dominant. Best for plants
Why is soil structure and texture important?
ability to be cultivated and suseptibility to erosion
Factors that affect soil formation
parent material
time
animals
plants
climate
slope
Soil Profiles
the vertical sections through soil
Mass Wasting
the work of gravity on the earth
landslides, slump, and creep
How do you identify a mineral?
Quantitative and Qulaitative evidence
Crystal form
external expression of a mineral's internal orderly arrangement of atoms
Streak
color of the mineral in it's powdered form
Mohs Hardness Scale
classify minerals based on their hardness 1-10
Specific Gravity
compares the weight of a mineral to the weight of an equal volume of water
Density
how much mass per volume