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### 30 Cards in this Set

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 Q: Whose law of gravitation explained tides? A: Isaac Newton Q: Tides react to the wavelength of: A: The planet H: It’s big, round, blue, and we’ve been talking about it since the beginning of this class Q: What is the barycenter of a system like the Earth-Moon system and where is it not? A: The common center of mass of the system (balance point) and it’s not halfway btwn the 2 bodies b/c the mass of Earth is much bigger than the mass of the Moon. Q: What are the zenith and the nadir? A: Point of greatest gravitational attraction (closest to Moon) Point of weakest gravitational attraction (farthest from Moon) Involves gravitational attraction to Moon Q: What’s the Earth Obliquity? A: 23.5 degrees Q: Planetary forces stay in orbit due to what 2 forces? A: Centrifugal and Gravitational H: Create bulges on opposite sides of Earth (F_grav towards Moon & F_centr away from Moon) Q: What are tide-generating forces? A: Horizontal component of resultant forces (tangential to Earth’s surface) that produce tidal bulges Q: Where are the tide-generating forces strongest? A: Near the Equator; Near the Zenith Q: Size of the tide is determined by: A: Relative position of the moon/sun H: F = GM/(R^3), R = distance btwn 2 planets in question Q: Why is the solar tide only ½ as strong as the lunar tide? A: Sun may be much more massive, but is also much farther from Earth than the Moon is H: F_grav = (GM)/(R^3) Q: What is the Spring Tide? A: Sun and Moon align and pull tides in same direction. Moon is said to by in syzygy. H: Maximum Tidal Range Possible & twice per month in btwn Neap Tides Q: What is the Neap Tide? A: Sun and Moon at right angles, and pull in different directions. Moon is said to be in quadrature. H: Weakest Tidal Range Possible & twice per month in btwn Spring Tides Q: What is the difference between the New Moon and the Full Moon? A: Full Moon’s face is lit up by the Sun (and we can see it) while New Moon’s face is dark (since it is in front of Sun and we can’t see it) Q: Is the 1st Quarter Moon Phase in btwn New->Full or vice versa? A: @ right angle of New->Full Q: Is the 3rd Quarter Moon Phase in btwn New->Full or vice versa? A: @ right angle of Full->New Q: What is the order of waning & waxing crescents and gibbous’? A: WaxCres->WaxGibb->WanGibb->WanCres H: Gibbous is lighter than crescent; waning = decrease, waxing = increase Q: What are the terms for when the Earth is near the Sun’s closest point & near the Sun’s most distant point? A: Perihelion; Aphelion H: Tidal ranges are largest when close & smallest when far Peri - close Ap/Apo - far Q: What are the terms for when the Moon is closest to the Earth & most distant from the Earth? A: Perigee; Apogee Q: What are the 3 types of tidal patterns? A: Diurnal (daily), Semidiurnal (twice-daily), Mixed (could have single low, single high, or two each, or mixed of them) Q: Where is the world’s largest tidal range found? A: Nova Scotia’ Bay of Fundy; perfect example of a tidally-driven seiche Q: Narrow bays have what level of rotational effects? A: Weak, and thus, tides slosh in and out at ease Weak wavelengths since not much room before hit another wall Q: Large tidal ranges (in a bay) can be found when: A: The period of free oscillation in the bay nearly equals that of the tidal period H: Constructive Interference plays an important role Q: What are tidal waves? A: Waves caused by tides H: Answer is in the question Q: Where & when do tidal bores occur? A: They occur in certain rivers & bays due to incoming high tides. Tidal bores are essentially true tidal waves (waves started solely by an incoming tide) Q: Tidal currents follow a ____ pattern but are converted to _____ currents along continental margins. A: Rotary; reversing Q: How are whirlpools created? A: The combination of reversing tidal currents packed into a small passage creates turbulence along the shallow sea floor - Tidal currents - Small passage - turbulence Q: What is the maximum velocity of reversing currents reached? A: When the water is halfway between high and low slack waters (peaks of high/low tides) Q: When does ebb current occur? When does a flood current occur? A: When water floods out of a bay/river b/c of an incoming low tide; when water floods into a bay/river b/c of an incoming high tide Tidal period is? 12 hours Why is a lunar day longer than a solar day? Lunar day has 50 extra minutes because the moon is moving with the Earth while the Sun is stationary. Who moved while we moved?