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198 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Acetylcholine(ACh) where found and function
Where: in CNS between terminal buttons and muscle fibers and at synapses in autonomic NS. Causes muscles in contract also learning and memory, sexual behavior and sleep
Adrenal Gland: Addison's and Cushing's disease
Addison's: under secretion, fatigue, fainting, appetite loss, depression apathy, CUSHING's Disease: obesity, memory loss, mood swings, depression
Adrenal Gland: Hormone and function
reading disability from brain lesion
Amygdala: What system and what function?
Limbic: Integrates and directs emotional behavior, mediates defensive/aggressive behavior. Damage affects emotional response.
Androgens: What and found where
Testosterone and found in males and females and involve sexual interest and appetite
Androgens: what and where produced?
testosterone, produced in gonads.
difficulty in ability to use or understand language
damage to a language area of the brain
Apraxia: Def, brain part
disruption in the coordination of complex purposeful movements.
Autonomic Nervous system def
regulates primarily involuntary activity. eg digestion, heartbeat, respiration. Includes sympathetic and parasympathetic
Basal Ganglia: Includes what three structures
Caudate nucleus, globus pallidus and putamen
Brain Imaging: Two main types and machine names
Structural: CT and MRI for clots and structural abnormalities and Functional: including PET and SPECT for measuring cerebral blood flow, glucose metabolism and O2 consumption
Brain Vision Pathway:
From optic nerve to thalamus to visual cortex to Occipital lobe
Brain: Three functional parts and where are they located
PRIMITIVE CORE: top of spinal cord, regulates basic somatic activites of breathing and sleeping. LIMBIC SYSTEM(old brain): Built around primitive core, mediates basic drives eg hunger thirst, rage,fear pleasure. CEREBRAL CORTEX(New brain) higher coghnitice and emotion functions
Broca's Aphasia:
not clear speech, slow difficult. Left frontal
Broca's Aphasia: Def, damage to what, and what lobe
speaking slowly with great difficulty, broca's areqa of left frontal lobe
Broca's Area: Lobe(including side) and damage result
Left frontal, Broca's Aphasia.
Cannon-Baird Theory of emotion:
Environmental stimuli stimualtes both thalamus and cortex producing sympathetic nervous system arousal and emotional feelings at the same time. Arousal and emotion happens at the same time
Catecholamines: Three types:
Norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine
Central Nervous System Two main parts
Brain and spinal cord.
Cerebral Cortex: Right and left: Name four lobes
Frontal, Parietal, Occipital and Temporal
Cerebral Cortex: Uniqueness from rest of brain
last to stop growing, after birth changes more than rest of CNS. More developed in humans than any other animal
Chronic pain associated with what disorders
major depresive, dysthymics disorder,
Cognitive-Arousal Theory: def
emotion come from physiological arrousal and a cognitive attribution to that arousal.
Conduction Aphasia:
Can't repeat what was heard
Conduction Aphasia: Lobe and Def
Temporal, Cannot repeat what is heard
Conduction Aphasia: where, Def
Lesion between Wernicke's area and Broca's area. Speaks and comprehends but cannot repeat what is heard.
Contralateral: Def
Left hemisphere controls right side and vice versa
Deep Sleep, slow wave, Delta is in stages
Three and four
Dopamine effects
degreneration of dopamine neurons causes muscular rigidity and tremors found in parkinsons disease
Emotions, Six universal basic:
fear, anger, joy, sadness, surprise, disgust
Estrogen Replacement Therapy and Hormone Replacement Therapy. Positive and negative?
Alleviate many symptoms and reduce osteoporosis and heart disease. ERT may increase risk of breast cancer.
Estrogen Replacement Therapy anmd Hormone Replacement therapy. Plus and Negative
Aleviates symptoms, lowers rish for osteo and heart disease but increases breast cancer
Estrogens: What and where
in females, sex development and healthy function. also in males, function unknown.
Excessive dopamine and norepinephrine associated with
Fluent Apasia:
clear nonsense speech
Forebrain: Five main structures
Hypothalamus, thalamus, basal ganglia, limbic system and cerebral cortex
Frontal Lobe Personality:
From damage to FL, apathy, lack of drive, low verbal, can't plan or focus
Frontal Lobe: 4 main functions:
Motor behavior, expressive language, higher-level cognitive processes, orientation to time, place and person
GABA does what and associated with what disease?
depresses CNS activity andb low levels associated with Huntingtons chorea (demetia and involuntary jerky movements in arms and legs
Glutamate: where and involved in what?
Hippocampus and memory
HINDBRAIN: Three structures
Medulla Obligata, Pons, cerebellum
Hippocampus: System and function
Limbic: Memory consolidation, Transfer from short-term to long-term. Damage causes severe antegrade amnesia (inability to form new permanent memories.
Hunger Brain areas and impact
lateral hypothalamus initiates eating response, while ventromedial hypothalamus inhibits eatintg.
Hypogonadism: def and Rx
Men with low circulating androgens. Androgen replacement helps.
Hypogonadism: what
low levels of androgen. adding androgen helps
Hypothalamus: In what main brain structure and does what?
Forebrain: controls autonomic nervous system and endocrine system via pituitary gland. Controls body's internal state (temp, fluids, metabolism, appetite). Controls motivated behaviors such as drinking, feeding and sex.
Internal Clock: Name and brain structure
Suprachiasmatic Nucleous(SCN) in the Hypothalamus. Pineal gland secretes melatonin for sleep at night
James-Lange Theory of Emotion:
people experience autonomic arrousal in response to environmental stimuli and then interprit as emotion. Eg. we are afraid because we tremble.
Left Hemisphere: Primary function:
Rational, logic,
Left hemisphere damage results
clinical depression, or intense anxiety
Limbic System three components:
Amygdala, septum and hippocampus
Low norepinephrine associated with?
Low serotonin relates to
Low sex desire in women. Which hormone?
Medulla Obligata: function
vital centers for breathing, heart rate, blood pressure and digestion. Damage often fatal
Menopause impact on hormones:
all three major hormones drop.
Menopause reduced Estrogen causes?
hot flashes, insomnia, mood swings, vaginal dryness.
Menopause: what and symptoms
reduction in all three major hormones. Drop in Estrogen causes hot flashes, etc
Midbrain: Two main parts?
Substantia Nigra and reticular formation
Neuron Three Parts and function
Cell body, dendrites and axon. Dendrites are short fibers carry info from other neurons. Axons carry info away from cell body
Neurons that secrete acetylcholine are called
cholinergic neurons
Neurotransmitter basic function?
chemical messingers which carry info across the synapse which se0perate individual neurons.
Obesity Research:
Overwieght people are more likely to be emotional eaters.
Occipital Lobe: Primary function
Visuaol Cortex
Occipital Lobe: damage?
Contralateral blindness.
PONS: Where and what function?
Just above Medulla Oblongata and connects two halves of cerebellum. Regulates arousal.
Pancreas: Diabetes and hypoglycemia
Diabetes: under secretion, low blood pressure, flow and death, Hypoglycemia, hunger, dizziness, headaches, blurred vision, anxiety depression
Pancreas: Hormone, function
Insulin, causes cellular uptake and usage of glucose and amino acids
Parietal Lobe Lesions cause what?
insensitivity to touch on opposite side and contralateral disruption of motion from loss of muscle feedback
Parietal Lobe: Major functions
somatosensory cortex. touch-pressure, pain, temp
Peripheral Nervous system def
carry's info from the sense organs to the CNS
Pre-frontal Association Cortex: Function and damage result
Coordinates sensory and motor areas, damage affects cognition, executive function. also decreased initiative, deficient self-awareness and concreteness
Primary Motor Cortex: Def and what lobe
Frontal and voluntary movement.
Primary Motor Cortex: Lobe and damage result
Frontal, lesions produce contralateral motor weakness, paralysis and apraxia.
Progesterone: what and where
Just in women, sexual function and placenta during pregnency
hormone in women, healthy functioning of repro system and placenta in pregnency
Psychophysics: Absolute thresholds and difference threshold:Defs
absolute threshold is the weakest stimulus a person can detect. Difference threshold is the smallest difference between two stimuli you can detect.
Psychophysics: Def
relationship between magnitood of physical stimuli and psychological sensations.
REM deprivation:
increase in anxiety and irratability and reversable
REM: def
rapid eye, absence of muscle tone, mixed freq EEG
Reticular Activating System(RAS): does what?
Includes fibers from reticular formation and arousesb the brain and facilitates information processing
Reticuolar Formation: Where and what
Midbrain: sleep, arrousal, pain and touch
Right Hemisphere damage results:
Apathy and indifference
Right Hemisphere: Function
artistic, music,
Septum: System and function
Limbic: Inhibits emotionality.
Sex and spinal cord injury.
appetite stays with erections but low rates of ejaculation.
Sexual Function and spinal cord injury in men
Doesn't reduce appetite, erections possible, but ejaculation is uncommon
Sexuaol Behavior: Sex hormones produced in what two organs?
Pituitary gland and gonads (ovaries and testes)
Sleep Cycle: How many how long
4-6 and 100 minutes
Sleep Stage Four:
Delta waves, deep breathing and slow heart rate.
Sleep Stage One Waves:
Sleep Stage Three:
slow delta waves
Sleep Stage Three:
large slow delta waves which dominate stage 4
Sleep Stage Two Waves:
theta waves and K complexes
Sleep Stages. How many and which contain REM?
Five and only fifth stage contains REM
Sleep and age
REM declines in absolute terms and percent
Sleep dreaming REM versus non-rem
dreaming occurs in both
Sleep stage four:
dominant delta waves
Sleep stage one:
Alpha waves
Sleep stages: how many and where is REM
Five: last stage
Sleep: Slow wave, delta, deep sleep. What stage(s)?
Somatic Nervous System def
controls skelital muscles and voluntary movement. Also five senses
Somesthesis: Four sub-modalities
Touch, position, temperature and Pain
Sperry Split Brain: severs what, effect?
Corpus Collosum. Show latteralization of some functions.
Spinal Cord: function?
Carries info between brain and PNS
Substantia Nigra: Part of brain and function, major disease
in Midbrain, involved in movement, Parkinson's disease tremors and disturbances in voluntary movement
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic def
Part of autonomic nervous system. Activation of sympathetic division mobilizes body resources such as fight or flight, heart rate, blood flow to extremities
Tactile Agnosia: Where, what
Parietal Lobe, inability to identify objects by touch using contralateral hand
Temporal Lobe: Three mainj areas
Receptive language, Long term Memory, emotion, auditory cortex
Central switching system. relays sensory information to cotex except Olfactory
The PNS has two main parts
Somatic and autonomic
Three anatomical structures:
Hindbrain, midbrain and forebrain
Thyroid: Hormone and function
Thyroxin, controls metabolism
Thyroid: Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism
HYPO: under secretion, slow metabolism, reduced appetite, weight gain, depression and HYPER: over secretion, elevated body temp, increased appetite, weight loss nervousness agitation
Two parts of nervous system
Central CNS and Peripheral PNS
Two processes terminate synaptic transmission by removing the neurotransmitter from the synapse
Reuptake: terminal buttons take up excess neurotransmitter and store for future use
Two processes terminate synaptic transmission by removing the transmitter from the synapse.
Reuptake: terminal buttons take up excess neuroT and store for future and Enzymatic degradation break down the neuroT
Visual Agnosia: Lobe and def
Occipital, inability to recognize objects
Wernicke's Aphasia: Def and brain area
impaired language comprehension. Temporal Lobe
Wernicke's Aphasia: Lobe and Def
Temporal, dysnomia (can't name objects) and unaware
Wernicke's Aphasia: Lobe, Def
Temporal, clear no sense speech. Unaware
inability to recognize familiar objects
Visual Agnosia:
can't recognize objects by site
Associative Visual agnosia
disconnection of the visual and language areas of the brain
Inability to recognize familiar faces
inability to recognize one's own functional impairment. Usually due to stroke.
paralysis on one side of the brain caused by damage on opposite side.
Slow movement, blank facial exp. emotionless speech
Korsakoff's Syndrone:
retrograde and anterograde amnesia. AA Thiamine deficiency
Strokes: Impact
50% survive. 10% fully recover. Most recovery is in first six months
Open Head Injury:
e.g. gunshot. Symptoms usually focal and often resolve rapidly
Closed Head trauma:
cause more widespread damage, often loose consciousness. Duration of antegrade is best predictor of degree and likelyhood of recovery
Huntingston's Chorea:
Motor disorder, reduced GABA, 50% genetic.
Huntington's Chorea Four stages:
one: Starts affective (depression, anxiety, mania), two: forgtfullness and motor symptoms, three: tics and jerky movements, four: some dementia
Parkinson's Motor Disorder cause
reduced Dopamine from substantia nigra also affecting basal ganglia
Parkinson's Affect
tremor, akinesia (slow movement, blank facial), 40% depressed, 20% depression before motor problems, some develop dementia later
Impramine, clomipramine, amitriptyline are what kind antidepressants
Tricyclics work how?
block reuptake of norepinepghrine and serotonin at synapse
Tricyclics best used where?
treating vegatative(psysiological) symptoms, Panic attacks, agoraphobia and obsessive states. Clomipramine commonly used for OCD
Anticholinergic effects: Class drugs and list
Tricylics, dry mouth, constapation, urinary retention, blurred vision and nasal congestion
Tricyclics: Overdose problem?
Lethal. And can't be used with MAOI's
Fluoxetine is a
Sertraline is a
Sertraline's brand name is
Paroxetine's brand name is
Fluoxetine's brand name?
Are SSRI's cardiotoxic?
SSRI side effects?
gastrointestinal problems, sexual dysfunction, headaches and may initially worsen sleep and anxiety
MAOI's: How work
block action of enzymes that break down norepinephrine and serotonin, making them more available at synapses
SSRI's How Work?
increase the availability of serotonin at the synapse by inhibiting its reuptake
Phenelzine (Nardil) and tranycypromine(Parnate) are what find of drugs?
MAOI's are recommended for what?
Atypical depression, including increased appetite, hypersomnia, mood reactivity
MAOI Side affects:
hypotension, dizziness, dry mouth, most serious potentially fatal hypertensive crisis with elevated blood pressure and convulsions
MAOI's conflict which what foods
Those that contain high levels of Tyramine such as beer, wine, aged cheese, packaged soup, soy sauce
Mood Stabilizers: treatment of choice
Lithium, most common for bipolar disorder. Reduces mania.
Lithium Side effects
gastric distress, weight gain, tremor, fatigue, mild cognition impairment, 35% have tremor. Too high can be fatal
Mood stabilizer alternative drugs are?
anticonvulsant drugs carbamazepine (Tegretol) and Valproic acid. Fewer side effects and works faster
Antipsychotics: Primary use?
Schizophrenia, acute mania and other disorders with psychotic features
Chlorpromazine (Thorazine), thioridazine (Mellaril), haloperidol (Haldol) and clozapine (Clozaril) are what?
Antipsychoptics work how?
By blocking dopamine receptors in the brain.
Antipstychotic side effects:
anticholinergic: dry mouth, blurred vision, tachycardia, Extrapyramidal side affects include various motor problems including stiffness, shuffling gate.
Tardive Dyskinesia: what drugs cause and def
anti-psychotics. usually after 6 months of use. abnormal involuntary movements, esp face, tongue, jaw. Can be alleviated through gradual withdrawal. Often temporary increase then symptoms decrease over time
Clozapine and agranulocytosis
decrease in white blood cells.
Benzodiazepines: Most common use
anti anxiety (anxiolytics)
Anxiolytic means
anti anxiety drug
Diazepam, alprazolam, clonazepam, lorazepam, triazolam are what class of drugs used for what
benzodiazepines for anti anxiety and panic disorder
Valium, Xanic, klonopin, ativan, halcion are what calss drugs used for what
benzodiazepines for anti anxiety and panic disorder
benzodiazepines: side effects
most common are drowsiness and sedation, also weight gain, apathy, dry mouth, gastric distress, paradoxical excitation, motor disturbances, sexual dysfunction
benzodiazepines: fatal side effect?
mixing with alcohol or other CNS depressant. Addictive as well
treatment for anxiety has been replaced by benzodiazepines
Propranolol (inderal) what class and use?
Beta blocker and used for anxiety, particularly for public speaking and performance situations.
Psychostimulants: what drugs and use?
cocaine, amphetamines, methylphenidate (Ritalin)
methylphenidate is what drug
methylphenidate effects
decrease motor activity, diminish impulsiveness, increase vigilance and attention
methylphenidate side effects
reduced appetite, insomnia, dysphoria, can exacerbate tics. overdose can look like paranoid schizophrenia
Narcotic analgesics: what drugs
opium, morphene, codeine, as well as percodan, demerol and methadone
Methadone addictive?
almost as much as heroin, but withdraw milder
treatment ADHD
Treatment alcoholism
Treatment: Anxiety drug class
Treatment: Anxiety drugs
diazepam, alprazolam, clonazepam, lorazepam, triazolam
Bipolar Disorder: Drugs classes used
mood stabilizers and anticonvulsants
Depression: Three main drug classes
MAOI's, Tricyclic, SSRI's
MAOI Brand names 2
Nardil Parnate
MAOI Generic names 2
phenelzine and tranylcypromine
Tricyclic brands 3
Tofranil Anafranil Elavil
Tricyclic Generic names 3
imipamine clomipramine amitriptyline
SSRI generic names 3
fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline
Enuresis: What drug class
Heroin Addiction. generic and Brand drug
methadone, Dolophine
OCD: What two classes of drugs
SSRI's and tricyclics
Panic Attacks: what drug and class
Xanax, Benzodiazepine
Schizophrenia: Two drugs, generic and brand and class
Haldol is haloperidol and Thorazine is chlorpromazine. Both antipsychotics
Tourette's. two drugs and class
haldol and Orap (pimozide), antipsychotic