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80 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Parts of the peripheral nervous system
Somatic
Autonomic
Describe the somatic nervous system
Regulates sensory and voluntary motor activity.
Describe the autonomic nervous system
Involuntary muscles

Sympathetic
Parasympathetic
Function of acetylcholine
Controls voluntary movement
Role in memory, REM sleep
Sex

ACh loss found in Alzheimers
Interference w ACh impedes new memories
Role of the limbic system
Limbic system is the old brain

It mediates:
hunger, thirst
emotions, eg rage, fear, pleasure
memory encoding
Def: paresis
slight or partial paralysis
Def: paraesthesis
abnormal sensations
eg numbness, tingling or burning
Def: hyperesthesia
abnormal sensitivity to sensation
Brain cell census
100 billion neurons

1 trillion glial cells
which do neural housekeeping.
Def: all or none law
all neuronal action potentials have the same magnitude

increased stimulation results in
more action potentials or
action potentials in more neurons
Factors affection neuronal conduction
Diameter: thicker is faster
Mylenation
Disorders associated with norepinephrine
Deficit in depression
Excess in schizophrenia

Norepinephrine is a catecholamine
Disorders associated with dopamine
Excess in schizophrenia
Deficit in Parkinsons

Dopamine is a catecholamine
What neurotransmitters are associated w schizophrenia?
Excesses of dopamine and norepinephrine.
Role of seratonin
Depletion associated w depression

Role in:
anxiety
obesity
aggression
sleep
modulation of pain
What brain structures are affected by Huntington's Chorea
HC involves genetic degeneration of
substantia nigra
basal ganglia
cortex
Symptoms of Parkinson's disease
Jerky movement
Disarthria (articulation problems)
Role of reticular formation *
Sleep / wake cycle
Arousal
Information filtering
Selective attention
Role of the hypothalmus
Body homeostasis and circadian rhythm
Eating, drinking, sex
Control of autonomic and endrocrine sys

Translation of strong feeling to involuntary responses:
shallow breathing, racing heart
Role of the hippocampus
Transfer from STM to LTM
Role of the frontal lobes
Motor behavior
Concentration
Reasoning
Expressive language
Orientation to time, person, place
Role of temporal lobes
Receptive language
Long term memory
Emotion

Includes auditory cortex
Role of parietal lobes
Receiving and processing touch/pressure, kinesthesia and pain

Integrating sensory info
Role of occipital lobes
Vision
Left hemisphere functions
Verbal
Logical

Damage results in slow, cautious behavioral style
Right hemisphere functions
Artistic and musical abilities

Damage results in quick, impulsive behavioral style
Def: ataxia *
Disruption of coordination of complex, voluntary movement. May include

slurred speech
severe tremors
loss of balance
Role of amygdala
Integrates and directs emotional behavior
Attaches meaning to sensory experience
Mediates aggressive / defensive behavior
Def: anterograde amnesia
Inability to form new, permanent memories
Describe Wernicke's aphasia *
Fluent speech devoid of meaning
Difficulties in comprehension

Includes impairments in written and spoken language and problems recalling words (anomia)

Due to temporal lobe damage

Aka fluent or receptive aphasia
Describe Broca's aphasia
Expressive aphasia

Impared language expression and comprehension
Slow, laborious, non-fluent speech

Broca's area is in the frontal lobe
Describe conduction aphasia
Caused by damage to the arcuate fasciculus, connecting Broca's and Wernicke's areas

Speech makes sense, but person can't repeat what he hears
Describe the James-Lange theory of emotion
Emotions represent interpretations of physiological experience

We're afraid because we tremble
What brain structures are involved in memory *
Prefrontal cortex (STM)
Hippocampus (STM -> LTM)
Temporal lobe (LTM)
Thalamus (spatial memory)
Describe the stages of sleep
1. Transition from wakefulness to sleep; alpha waves give way to theta waves
2. Theta waves
3/4. Slow wave, delta, deep sleep
5. REM or paradoxical sleep: body out but mind active.

Cycle is ~100 min and recurs 4-6 times/night
Describe Korsakoff's syndrome
Memory disorder common in alcoholics,
characterized by amnesia, confabulation and apathy
disorientation with respect to time and place
lack of insight into current problems
Describe long term potentiation
Result of high freq neuronal stimulation:

increased neuronal sensitivity
synapse change
formation of new receptor sites
Role of RNA in memory
Memory increases RNA production
Training or experience increases cell RNA

Different experience produces different RNA
What is a likely result of spinal cord injury on male sexuality
Erection but not ejaculation
def: agnosia *
Inability to recognize familiar objects
Functions of the sympathetic nervous system
Fight or flight
Arousal
Control of smooth muscles of the blood vessels
Role of Broca's area
Speech production
Sleep changes as we age
Hours in REM decrease
% of REM decreases
Total sleep decreases
Role of beta blockers in psychopharmacology
Mgmt of anxiety, esp performance anxiety
tachychardia
sweating
hyperventalation

Used primarily for hypertension

Eg: Inderal
Medications for mania
Lithium (tx of choice)
Tegretol (carbamazepine)
Valproic acid

(in order of decreasing side effects)

Antipsychotics for acute episodes
Thorazine, Mellaril, Haldol
Medications for OCD
SSRIs, esp Prozac
tricyclics, esp Clomipramine
Describe symptoms of parietal lobe damage
unusual complex sensory and motor problems
left-right confusion
apraxia
face and tactile agnosia
problems deciphering visual/spatial info

unaware or unconcerned about problems
Identify parts and scope of spinal chord regions
cervical - ring and little fingers
thoracic - hand and arm
lumbar - hip, thigh, leg
sacral - foot, leg
What part of the brain was most likely injured if patient reports loss of sensation?
somatosensory cortex
Where is the somatosensory cortex?
On the postcentral gyrus in the parietal lobe
Where is the lateral fissure?
It separates the temporal lobe from the overlying frontal and parietal lobes
Where is the central sulcus?
It separates the frontal and parietal lobes
Def: propopagnosia
Inability to recognize faces
Cause of propopagnosia
Deficits in both
visual processing
memory
Where is the parietal-occipital sulcus?
It separates the occipital lobes
Describe Type 1 schizophrenia (T. Crowe)
Delusions or hallucinations
Inappropriate affect
Disorganized thinking

Due to neurotransmitter abnormality
Describe Type 2 schizophrenia (T. Crowe)
Poor prognosis
Most symptoms begin in adolescence
Unresponsive to medication

Due to brain structure abnormalities
Effect of cocaine on neurotransmitters
Blocks dopamine reuptake,
increasing dopamine
Symptoms of narcolepsy
Irresistable sleep attacks daily for 3 mo
Cataplexy - sudden loss of muscle tone
Desc: Pick's disease
Degenerative brain disorder
similar to Alzheimer's
begins with personality rather than memory deficits, and a decline in functioning
lost ability to initiate, organize, and follow through on even very simple plans and familiar activities
What neurotransmitters are involved in Alzheimer's?
Primarily and earliest acetylcholine

Later seratonin, norepiniphrine, glutamate
What are the symptoms of Huntington's Chorea?
Early:
depression
irritability

Later:
motor disturbance
personality change
dementia
What neurotransmitters are associated with Huntington's Chorea?
GABA deficits
ACh
glutamate
dopamine
Causes of Parkinson's Disease
Depletion of dopamine
Degeneration of substantia nigra
Results of frontal lobe damage
Broca's aphasia
Impulsivity
Results of temporal lobe damage *
Wernicke's aphasia
Problems w auditory perception
Changes in sexuality
Severe anterograde amnesia
Deficits in declarative memory
(especially episodic)
Faulty judgement
Impaired concentration
Limbic system structures
thalamus
hippocampus

hypothalamus
amgdala
Loss of mylenation results in...
Multiple sclerosis:
weakness, poor coordination and tremor
Gonadotrophic hormones are released from
the pituitary
Medication of choice for panic attacks
Antidepressants
Medications for ADHD
Ritalin
Dexedrine
Medication for treatment of heroin addiction
dolophine
Symptoms of hypothyroidism
cold intolerance
muscle aches and pains
slowness of speech
impaired memory
confusion
depression
slowed metabolism
weight gain
Def: akathesia
inability to sit still
Def: akinesia
Slowness of movement
Masklike facial expression
Emotionless speech
What are benzodiazepines *
Anxiolytics, minor tranquilizors

Include: Valium, Xanax, Halcion, Ativan
Benzodiazepine side effects *
drowsiness
impaired psychomotor abilities
impaired short-term memory

more rarely:
dizziness
ataxia
allergic reactions
nausea
agression

NOT:
impaired cognitive formation
Def: apraxia
problems in voluntary movement
Part of the brain linked with impulsivity
Impulivity is inversely correlated with size of caudate nucleus
Neurotransmitter most associated with Tourette's
dopamine