Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Zona Adherens
Also called belt desmosomes, attached through cadherins (Calcium dependent). Bind epithelial cells together. Go completely around the cell
Junctional Complex
Entire area in which two cells are attached to one another. Most apical point is the occluding junction. At the level of the light microscope constitutes terminal bars.
Sequence of Junctions in the lateral edges of enterocytes
Occluding Junctions - (most apical) Zona Occludens, Anchoring junctions - Zona Adherens (belt desmosomes), spot desmosomes (spot weld)
Occluding Junctions
Also known as tight junctions, function to prevent the leakage of material in the lumen along the lateral surface of the cells. Form a permeability barrier between the cells and prevent migration of proteins in the lateral plasma membranes to the apical surface. The plasma membranes of the two cells appear to fuse. Zonula occludens in columnar epithelial cells.
Belt (Band) Desmosomes
More basally located from occluding, function as anchoring junctions, in columnar cells called zonula adherens. Serve as anchoring sites for actin microfilaments.
Terminal web
A network of filaments in the apical cytoplasm of cells. Consists of actin filaments and myosin and spectrin II.
Spot desmosomes
Anchor two cells together (not restricted to epithelial cells) Called macula adherens. Composed of cytokeratin intermediate filaments anchored to the plasma membranes and extend into the cytoplasm. Contain desmoplankins which are attached to the intermediate filaments. Therefore is an anchoring site for intermediate filaments.
Attach the basal surface of the epithelial cells to the extracellular matrix. Resemble half desmosomes. Have intermediate filaments to plasma membrane but bound by integrin to glycoproteins in the extracellularmatrix.
Brush Border
In intestinal epithelial cells and proximal tubules of Kidney. Tightly packed, ordered arrangements of microvilli. Contain a core of actin filaments that enter the cytoplasm through the terminal web.
Longer than microvilli. Move mucus in respiratory tract. 9 outer triplets of microtubules w/ 2 in basal bodies which stabilize the ciliary structure and act as microtubule organizing centers. The axoneme (top) of the cilia consists of 9 outer doublets and 2 inner microtubules. Dynein moves retrograte (-) and causes the cilia to move.
Exocrine glands
Secrete products into a system of channels or ducts
Endocrine glands
Secrete products into underlying connective tissue which then make their way to the blood.
Grape like clusters of cells that are secretory units. Cells that constitute them are pyramidal, rounded and have a basally located nucleus.
Mixed gland
Contains both serous and mucous acini. Serous will stain darkly, mucous will be lighter.
Mucous gland
Only mucous, more viscous protein product which copmresses the nuclei of the acinar cells to the base. Cytoplasm filled with mucus droplets.
Serous gland
Oily protein product.
Goblet cells
Mucous, unicellular, exocrine mode of excretion
An individual gap junction
6 Characteristics of Epithelium
Polar, Have Junctions, Avascular, Basement Membrane, Free surface, Highly cellular
Artery in microscope
possess round lumen with thick mucular wall. Has internal elastic lumen (stitch pattern)
3 stages of skin
Epidermis (outer) - Dermis - hypodermis
Glands are classified by: (4 things)
Mode and Type of secretion, Shape, Presence/Absence of Ducts
Sebacious gland
Hair follical associated sweat gland that is multicellular, has a simple duct, Aveolar, holocrine secretion
Eccrine gland
Sweat gland. Has a simple coiled tubular duct, small lumen, merocrine serous secretions
Apocrine gland
Sweat gland. Has a large lumen, simple coiled tubular duct, merocrine mode of secretion, serous secretion,
Distinguishing Stratified Squamous from transitional
Stratified Squamous - Elongated, densly staned nuclei with heterochromatin
Transitional- Round nuclei with some euchromatin
Equation for the overall reaction carried out by the TCA cycle
CH3COOH + 2 H2O -> 2CO2 + 4x2H2
Total number of ATPs that can be generated from one turn of the cycle
The comitted step of the TCA Cycle
Isocitrate to alpha-ketoglutarate via Isocitrate dehydrogenase
Describe the similarities between the oxidative decarboxylations of pyruvate -> succinyl CoA and alpha-ketoglutarate -> succinyl CoA. Also name the 5 enzymes involved.
1) Pyr + NAD + CoASH -> NADH + CO2+ AcCOA

2)alphaKG + NAD + CoASH -> sucCoA+ NADH + CO2

What is anapleroisis? Which intermediate in the TCA cycle can undergo this?
Oxaloacetate is replenished from pyruvate or can be formed from aspartate via transamination
How can alpha-ketoglutarate be regenerated?
Glutamate -> alpha ketoglutarate via trans amination
Which intermediates in TCA can serve as precursors for the synthesis of (a) glutamic acid, (b) apartic acid, (c) acetyl CoA, and fatty acids, (d) heme
a) alpha-KG
b) OxaloAc
c) Citric acid
d) Succinyl CoA
What role does oxaloacetate play in the the TCA cycle? Name the enzyme involved in the synthesis of oxaloacetate from pyruvate
OxAc is a catalyst. Synthesized by action of pyruvate carboylase.
Steps where TCA cycle is regulated.
1) the rate of formation of AcCoA from Pyruvate is controlled by elevated Ca++ and reduced ATP, NADH, AcCoA

2) Isocitrate dehydrogenase requires ADP as a positive stimulatory modulator

3) Isocitrate to alphaketoglutarate regulated by ATP and NADH

alphaKG to Succinyl CoA regulated by ATP, NADH and Succinyl CoA
Role Biotin plays in the TCA cycle.
Biotin used in raction of pyruvate carboylase to form AcCoA and then which forms OxAc and ADP

Pyr + CO2 + ATP + H2O -> OxAc + ADP + Pi + 2H+
How does pyruvate transverse the inner mitochondrial membrate?
Via a symporter along with a proton
State the type of raction in which thiamine (Vit B1) participates as a Co-enzyme.
Oxidative decarboxylation such as pyruvate to AcCoA and alpha-KG to SuccCoA
What diseases result from a deficiency of thaimine?
Beri Beri, Werner-Korsacoffs
Describe a diagnostic test for thiamine deficiency.
Transketolase utilises it as a substrate
Key functional groups of lipoic acid
Disulfide group- actas as a carrier for hydrogen and acetyl groups
Covalent interaction between lipoic acid and the enzyme dihydrolipoyl transacetylase (E2)
Forms an amide bond linkage
Name Vitamins that are essential for the the biosynthesis of NAD+, FAD, FMN, and CoA
Niacin for NAD, FAD and FMN need Riboflavin (B2), CoA requires Pantothenic acid (a B vitamin)
Name the enzymes involved in the TCA Cyle in order of action.
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase, Citrate Synthase, Aconitase, Aconitase, Isocitrate Dehydrogenase, Alpha Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase, Succinyl CoA synthetase, Succinate Dehydrogenase, Fumarase, Malate Dehydrogenase