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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the intracellular location of the electron transport chain?
Inner mitochonrdrial membrane
Define oxidation, reduction
Oxidation = Lose electrons
Reduction = Gain electrons
What is meant by a half reaction or redox couple?
Pair of substances, one oxidant (GE) and one reductant (LE)
Give the equations for the half and full reactions involving the redox couple
Pyruvate/ Lactate
Pyr + 2e- + 2H+ -> lactate
NAD+ + H- + H+ -> NADH + H+
Define the standard reduction potentials Eo and Eo'
Eo = Voltage generated when redox couple is in equilibrium with another couple in standard state (1M)
Eo'= Reduction potentials at pH = 7
Compute Delta Eo' from the redox potentials for Pyruvate/lactate = -0.19
NAD+/NADH = -0.32. How can you tell from Eo' values whether a redox couple will oxidize or reduce another couple?
Negative to positive electrons flow
DeltaEo' = Eo'ox - Eo'red
More negative is reductant
-0.19 - (-0.32) = +0.32
What is the relationship between DeltaGo' and DeltaEo'?
Delta Go' = -nFDeltaEo'
Where in the cell do oxidative phophorylation and substrate level phosphorylation to produce ATP occur? Which produces more ATP?
oxidative = major manner of producing ATP (inner mitochondrial membrane and matrix)

substrate = minor ATP formation from TCA cycle, occurs in matrix and cytoplasm
How many ATPs are formed from NADH+ + H+ and FADH?
NADH = 2.5
FADH2 = 1.5
Name an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation. How does it act? What is its effect on respiration and formation of ATP?
2,4 Dinitrophenol, Dicumarol, Fatty acids, Uncoupling Protein
Acts by allowing H+ to flow back into matrix w/o producing ATP. Respiration increases and ATP formation decreases.
Which lipid soluble compound accepts hydrogens from FADH2? What is unique about it?
Coenzyme Q, is a link btw I, II and III.
What roles do cytochromes play in respiration? Name the cytochrome complex which reacts with oxygen.
Cytochromes are electron carriers. Cytochrome oxidase reacts with oxygen.
What are the four complexes of the electron transport chain? Which are proton pumps?
1)NADH dehydrogenase
2)Succinate dehydrogenase
3)Cytochromes b and c1
4)Cytochrome aa3

I, III, IV pump H+
What role does ADP play in the regulation of oxidative phosphorylation?
Exerts resiratory control (utilization of O2)
Describe the essential features of the chemiosmotic hypothesis? How does it explain 'uncoupling'and the formation of ATP?
Electrons flow from high to low energy level. Form a proton gradient which then can be used to produce ATP or heat via uncoupling.
Name the enzyme (also known as complex V) that synthesizes ATP in the electron transport chain.
ATP synthase
How does oligomycin affect the generation of ATP in mitochondria?
Inhibits ATP synthase
Name an inhibitor of ADP/ATP exchange?
Atractylocide- Inhibits the carrier which allows passage from mitochondria to cytoplasm