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131 Cards in this Set

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requires local governments to adopt floodplain development regulations in order to be eligible for federal flood insurance. also denies federal finding to proposed construction projects in designated flood hazard areas.
federal flood disaster protection act of 1973
established a strategy for reducing soil eroision in the us. farmers are given a subsidy for highly erodicble land they take out of production and replant with soil saving grass or trees for ten years. farmers who violate their contracts must pay back all subsidies plus interest.
farm act of 1985
regulates supertankers and reduces the chances of supertanker oil spills
oil protection act of 1990
requires new standards for pesticide tolerance levels in foods and requires manufacturers to demonstrate that the active ingredients in their pesticide products are safe for infants and children. it also allows the epa to apply an additional ten fold safety factor to pesticide tolerance levels to protect infants and children, requires the epa to consider exposure to more than one pesticide when setting pesiticde tolerance levels, and requires the epa to develop rules for a program to screen all active and inactive ingredients for their estrogenic and endocrine effects by 1999.
food quality protection act of 1996
promotes irrigation and water development projects in the arid west
reclamation act of 1902
prevented the manufacture, sale, or transportation of adulterated, misbranded, or poisonous foods, durgs, medicines, and liquors, and also to regulate traffic therein.
pure food and drug act of 1906
helps state agencies restock and conserve game fish through a tax on fishing equipment
federal aid in fish restoration act of 1950
enforces laws enacted by the us congress and regulations created by the agency to protect the consumer's health, safety, and money
food, drug, and cosmetic act of 1938
triples the amount of land in the national wilderness system and doubles the area in the national park system
antiquities act of 1906
allows rivers and river segments with outstanding scenic, rec, geo, wildlife, historical, or cultural values to be protected in the natl wild and scenic rivers system. waterways are to be kept free of development; they may not be widened, straightened, dredged, filled, or dammed along the designated lengths.
national wild and scenic rivers act of 1968
this toxic substance originates in Smelting ores, burning coal
arsenic
this toxic substance can lead to Cardiovascular damage, “corns and warts” form on feet, hands, and torso. Darkening of skin including Blackfoot disease which is loss of circulation and eventual gangrene
arsenic
this toxic substance is found in
Cardiovascular damage, “corns and warts” form on feet, hands, and torso. Darkening of skin including Blackfoot disease which is loss of circulation and eventual gangrene
this toxic substance causes damage to bone marrow, anemia and leukemia. Yellowing of skin.
benzene
this toxic substance originates in batteries, a zinc refining and cadmium smelting factory
cadmium
this toxic substance causes
chronic bronchitis and emphysema, kidney effects including kidney stones, and result in kidney failure. Bone problems are usually like osteoporosis or other bone-growth diseases. The cancers cadmium can cause include lung cancer, prostate cancer, and kidney cancer.
this toxic substance originates in was used as a pesticide on crops like corn and citrus and on home lawns and gardens. Also used heavily with termite control.
chlordane
this toxic substance causes victim initially appearing agitated or excited and later becoming tired, confused, depressed, or uncoordinated. Chronic effects include damage to the nervous system or liver, as well as blood disorders or possibly liver cancer
chlordane
this toxic substance was used to preserve and is an anti-mildew agent. Found in a wide variety of substances from sugar, photographic film production, embalming fluid, fingernail polish, carpets, furniture, ect
formaldehyde
this toxic substance causes Generally respiratory issues including chronic effects-- getting nose cancer and throat cancer (nasopharyngeal cancer)
formaldehyde
this toxic substance comes from Burning fuel, industrial processes, and burning solid waste also release lead into the atmosphere. Also some paints, soldering, and stained glass
lead
this toxic substance causes Neurological toxin it also causes weakness in fingers, wrists, or ankles. Neurological effects include behavior and learning problems (hyperactivity), mental retardation, blindness, hearing problems, and slowed growth.
lead
this toxic substance comes from Dental fillings, burning coal, old thermometers, old florescent lights, some industrial processes
mercury
this toxic substance is an element can bioaccumulate in your body; kidneys and in the brain. It also biomagnifies up the food chain. A neurological toxin. muscle incoordination, loss of sensation, and difficulties with memory, uncontrolled salivation, tremors.
mercury
this toxic substance can be called PCBs
polychlorinated biphenyls
this toxic substance comes from old transformers and capacitors, as well as old electrical devices
polychlorinated biphenyls
this toxic substance causes Jaundice which is yellowish discoloration of the whites of the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes caused by deposition of bile salts in these tissues. Formation of a type of acne composed of small pimples and blackheads known as chloracne is due to prolonged contact through the skin. chronic symptoms consist of symptoms of acute toxic hepatitis which can lead to cirrhosis of the liver.
polychlorinated biphenyls
this toxic substance is a manufactured substance that is used to make Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), which is used in many plastic products
vinyl chloride
this toxic substance can Cause numbness, redness, and blisters, that feels similar to frostbite on the hands. Problems with blood flow in the hands can develop; the tips of fingers turn white and hurt while in cold temperatures. It can also cause the breakdown of bones in the fingertips. Prolonged exposure can also damage the sperm and testes
vinyl chloride
changes through a population's genetic make up through successive generations is called
biological evolution
do individuals change?
NO!
individuals don't change, but they do
acclimate
small genetic changes in a population, or within a species. this is a horizontal change
microevolution
large scale evolutionary changes, or a vertical change above the species level
macroevolution
after kingdom comes...
phylum
after phylum comes
class
after class comes...
order
after order comes...
family
after family comes...
genus
after genus comes...
species
king phillip cooks onions for girl scouts
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
macroevolution is controlled by this, or the inheitance of DNA to all descendants
genetic persistence
another factor in macroevolution is this, or long term changes in lineages of speicies, and genetic losse, the steady or catastrophic loss of lineages
genetic divergence
how many fossils do we have?
only about 1% of the species believed to have ever lived
carbon dating is accurate back to around
15000 years
in fossilization, do organic tissues survive?
NO!
chromatin is...
unwound DNA
this is the sum total of all genes possessed by the individuals in a popltn and this is the change of that pool over time
a population's gene pool, microevolution
different molecular forms of genes...
alleles
sources of new alleles
mutations,random changes in the structure or number of DNA molecules
sources of changes in DNA
radioactivity, x rays, mutagens
DNA -> RNA is called
replication
DNA->DNA
replication
DNA-> RNA
transcription
RNA-> amino acids
translation
the four DNA um... thingies
adenine, cytozine, thymine, guanine
the chemical unique to RNA is
uracil
any good mutation is called
an adaption, or adaptive trait
this occurs when the combined processes of adaptations and differential reproduction result in a particular beneficial gene becoming more common in succeeding generations
natural selection
these don't create fabvorable heritable characteristics
environmental factors
this natural selection causes allele frequencies to shift in one direction
directional natural selection
this kind of natural selection is common during periods of enviro changes or when memebers of a population migrate to new environmental conditions
directional natural selection
this natural selection favors the average and eliminates individuals on the extremes
stabilizing natural selection
this occurs when the environment changes little and most organisms are adapted to the environment. abnormal alleles have no advantage
stabilizing natural selection
this favors individuals on the extremes and eliminates the norm
diversifying natural selection
this can occur when there is a shift in the food supply. it selects against average individuals
diversifying or disruptive natural selection
species which interact...
coevolution
this favors mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism
coevolution
why no perfectly adapted organisms?
1. change in enviro conditions lead to adaptations only for traits already present in the gene pool
2. adaptations are compromises. organisms must do many things and if it is well suited for one enviro, it is likely it is not suited as well for another
3. limited by popultn's reproductive capability
4. most members would have to die or become sterile so that individuals with the trait could predominate and pass the trait on
a species is
a distinct type of organism that can mate and produce a viable offspring
this is the possibility of suffering harm from a hazard
risk
injury, disease, economic cost, envionmental damage
hazard
four types of hazards
cultural hazards, chemical hazards, physical hazards, biological hazards
dirving, unsafe sex, smoking, poor diet, drinking, poverty
cultural hazards
things we do by choice that we as a society have invented or fostered
cultural hazards
from harmful chems in the air, water, soil, and our food
chemical hazards
these are mostly from the environment, like ionizing radiation, noise, fires, tornadoes, floods
physical hazards
things once alive/ created by living things. pathogens (bacteria, viruses, parasites), pollen and animals like poisonous snakes
biological hazards
25% of the world's forests are managed for
wood production
usually harvested on a short restoration cycle for
fuelwood and paper fibers
even aged
short cycle, trees same age grown in monoculture
uneven aged, mature trees cut, rest left. 10% at a time. allows natural regneration, avoids soil erosion and wind damage
selective cutting
removes mature trees in 2 to 3 cuttings over 10 years. 30% at a time. avoids crowding, allows seeding, keeps a natural look
shelterwood cutting
leaves a few uniformly distributed trees to regenerate the stand. 80% at a time.
seed tree cutting
remove all trees in one cutting and replant. requires less kill and planning, less time. max profit in short term. lots of erosion, less fertile soils
clear cutting
sustainable version of clear cutting .takes more land for the same amount of proft. good for wildlife
strip cutting
thin buffers of uncut trees to hide the effects of logging
beauty strips
how much wood consumed in us is waited?
60%
natural fires are started by
lightning
these burn only underground/leaf litter. mature plants are spared
surface fires
these smolder for days before detection and hard to put out. most common in northern peat bogs
ground fires
methods of fire prevention:
prevention (warning system)
prescribed burning (setting controlled surface fires)
pre suprression-- early detxn and control of fires
suppression-- fighting fires once they've started
strip area down to bare mineral rock
fire alleys
these are where countries clean up and care for natural areas in return for foreign aid or debt relief
debt for nature swaps
private organizations, or countries pay other countries for protecting forest area
conservation easements
land that supplies forage of vegatation for grazers and browsers
rangeland
herbivores that can difest cellulose in grasses and convert it into meat and milk (cows, horses, grazers)
ruminants
occurs when too many animals grazy for too long and exceed the carrying capacity of the area. lowers productivity and changes the plants in the area
overgrazing
grass species that decline in abundance with moderate grazing. herbivores like these. they are soft and put weight on cattle
decreasers
those species that increase with moderate to heavy grazing. tough fibrous grass like crabgrass
increasers
plants that colonize an area because of major changes in rangeland conditions. cattle really don't like these. won't eat at all.
invaders
graze all year long in one area
continuus grazing
move livestock between 2 (usually 3) range areas thus allowing the perennial grasses to recover. ussually a 6 yr cycle
deferred rotation grazing
thin strips of permanent vegetation along streams that help prevent floods and drought
riparian zones
in the national forest system you can...
do basically anyuthing
the national forest system uses a
multiple use basis management style
national grasslands and national coastal areas are basically the same as
national forest system
the national wildlife refuge system is
90% in alaska. can do rec things.
the national wildlife refuge system is managed by
moderately restricted use basis
the national park system includes
the great smoky mtns
the national park system is managed on
resutricted use basis
national wildlife preservation system
no motorized access. usually in the center of national parks
the amount of a potentially harmful substance that is ingested, inhaled, or absorbed
dose
the period of time in which dose is applied
exposure
this is a single dose or a short period of time (less than 14 days)
acute exposure
over most or all of a lifetime, must be exposed during two or more of these stages
chronic exposure
repeated exposures for some fraction of a lifetime, 2 or less life periods
subchronic exposure
type and amount of damage
response
immediate or rapid reaction, dissipates if exposure stops. ex. dizziness, rash
acute effect
a permanent or long lasting consequence like liver or kindey damage from drinking
chronic effect
MCS
multiple chemical sensitivity
dose and response can be affected by ---- of a chem in water or oil
solubility
the increase of concentrations of chems in specific organs and tissues above normal levels
bioaccumulation
length of time a substance stays in the body. commonly measured in biological half lives
residence time
toxic levels can be magnified as they pass through a food chain
biomagnification
these reduce the harmful effects of interacting chemicals
antagonistic interactions
these increase the harmful effects of interacting chems
synergistic interactions
3 methods to determine the threat to human health
case studies, lab investigations, epidemiology
potentially harmful chems to which original chems can be converted within the body
metabolites
every dose has some symptoms
linear response model
below certain doses, a body can handle and repair itself
threshhold response curve