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61 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Leader behavior in the path-goal leadership theory in which the leader sets expectations and task goals at a high level.
Achievement Behaviors
Leadership theory that attributes performance differences among employees to the behaviors and style of leaders.
Behavioral Theory of Leadership
The view that charismatic leaders, such as former presidents Bill Clinton and Ronald Reagan, are able to influence people because of their energy, self-confidence, and dominating personalities.
Charismatic Leadership
1) Person-oriented behavior in which the leader exhibits friendship, trust, respect, and warmth toward subordinates. 2) The third element of a contract; it consists of some form of compensation. Without consideration, no contract exists.
Consideration
Leadership theory that attributes performance differences among employees to the leader's behavior and style in combination with situational factors
Contingency Theory of Leadership
Leader behavior in the path-goal leadership theory in which the leader makes task expectations clear by setting goals, structuring work flow, and providing feedback through regular performance appraisals.
Directive Behaviors
The ability to motivate people; used by entrepreneurs as a primary tool to move their venture toward its goals.
Influence
Task-oriented behavior in which the leader organizes and defines the relationships in the workgroup, establishes patterns and channels of communications, and directs the work methods.
Initating Structure
The ability to influence through communication the activities of others, individually or as a group, toward the accomplishment of worthwhile, meaningful, and challenging goals.
Leadership
Dimension of Fiedler's leader­ship theory that refers to the degree of confidence the subordinates have in the leader, the loyalty shown to the leader, and the leader's attractiveness
Leader-member Relations
Leadership behavior model in which leaders are considered most effective when they achieve a high and balanced concern for both people and task.
Managerial Grid Theory
Leader behavior in the path-goal leadership theory in which the leader actively seeks ideas and information from workers.
Particpative Behavior
Leadership perspective that holds that the way leaders get things done through others has implications for the long-term health and prosperity of a venture.
Person-Oriented Leadership
Dimension of Fiedler's leadership theory that refers to the power inherent in the leadership position. It includes the rewards and punishments typically associated with the position, the leader's official authority (based on ranking in the managerial hierarchy), and the support that the leader receives from superiors and the overall organization.
Position Power
Leader behavior in the path-goal leadership theory in which the leader demonstrates concern for the worker and, when problems occur, is ready to offer advice.
Supportive Behavior
Leadership behavior that attempts to ensure that employee activities are aligned with the business plan.

__________ techniques emphasize the need for leaders to plan each worker's job tasks and job outcomes
Task-Oriented Leadership
Dimension of Fiedler's leadership theory that refers to the degree to which the subordinates' jobs are routine rather than nonroutine.
Task Structure
Leadership theory that attributes performance differences among employees to the individual characteristics (traits) of leaders
Trait Theory of Leadership
Assertiveness is the primary tool used by leaders to accomplish goals. (T or F)
False
It is important that the entrepreneur be a good manager of day-to-day operations. (T or F)
False
According to the contingency theory of leadership, performance is attributed to traits and behavior as well as situational factors.
(T or F)
True
The person-oriented leader builds teamwork through supportive, considerate, and nonpunitive behavior. (T or F)
True
The key concepts to the two-dimensional theory of leadership are initiating structure and consideration.
(T or F)
True
The managerial grid theory shows that managers are most effective when they are focused on tasks. (T or F)
False
A recurring theme in the contingency theory of leadership is participation by others in decision making.
(T or F)
True
Charismatic leaders are often dictatorial in their style of management. (T or F)
False
Charismatic leadership can be learned (T or F)
True
The terms leadership and management are interchangeable. (T or F)
False
The ability to influence others, through communication, to accomplish a meaningful goal is the definition of
Leadership
Which of the following is the primary tool used by entrepreneurs to move a venture toward its goals?
Influence
Managers are primarily concerned with ________, whereas leaders are most concerned with _______
Process; Substance
Which of the following is not an approach to leadership?
Influential Theory
_________ assumes that work is natural, that people will accept and learn responsibility, and that people have potential.
Theory Y
Seven influence strategies have been proposed as vital for entrepreneurial leadership roles...
- Bargaining–Negotiating through the use of benefits or favors
- Assertiveness–Using a direct and forceful approach
- Reason–Using facts and data to develop a logically sound argument
- Friendliness–Using supportiveness, praise, and the creation of goodwill
- Sanctions–Using rewards and punishment
- Coalition–Mobilizing others in the organization
- Higher Authority–Gaining the support of higher levels in the hierarchy to add weight to the request
In their role as managers, entrepreneurs must focus on _______ venture performance

Managers are primarily concerned with process
Day-to-day
In their role as leaders, entrepreneurs must focus on the ___________ of the venture

Leaders are primarily concerned with substance
Long-term goals
The three main approaches at the center of the debate surrounding the foundations of leadership are...
- The trait theory of leadership: Attributes performance differences among employees to the individual characteristics (traits) of leaders.

The behavioral theory of leadership: Attributes performance differences to the behaviors and style of leaders.

The contingency theory of leadership: Attributes performance differences to the leader's behavior and style in combination with situational factors
Mila Green is founder of _________. A company that does document tranlslation in all (160) languages.

- Interpretation Project Manangment
- Translation Project Management

They translate medical documents for AIG, HP, Fruit of the Loom, Administaff

She re-wrote her mission statement to give help for translation services. She is able to provide service that is valuable.
Master Word Services, Inc.
Although the trait theory has its problems, it can't be denied that leaders often exhibit traits that followers admire.

The studies have produced a lengthy list of possible traits that are essential to leadership, but they can be grouped into six categories:
- Physical traits–age, height, weight
- Background characteristics–education, social class or status, mobility, experience
- Intelligence–ability, judgment, knowledge
- Personality–aggressiveness, alertness, dominance, decisiveness, enthusiasm, extroversion, independence, self-confidence, authoritarianism
- Task-related characteristics–achievement need, responsibility, initiative, persistence
- Social characteristics–supervisory ability, cooperativeness, popularity, prestige, tact, diplomacy
The terms used to refer to _________ leadership behaviors include directive, production-oriented, autocratic, and initiating structure
Task-oriented
Which Theory is this?
- People have an inherent dislike for work and will avoid it whenever possible.
- People must be coerced, controlled, directed, or threatened with punishment in order to get them to achieve the organizational objectives.
- People prefer to be directed, do not want responsibility, and have little or no ambition.
- People seek security above all else
Theory X Assumptions
Which Theory is this?
- Work is as natural as play and rest.
- People will exercise self-direction if they are committed to the objectives (they are not lazy).
- Commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with their achievement.
- People learn to accept and seek responsibility.
- Creativity, ingenuity, and imagination are widely distributed among the population. People are capable of using these abilities to solve an organizational problem.
- People have potential.
Theory Y Assumptions
- Express appreciation for jobs well done.
- Stress importance of high morale.
- Treat all employees as equals.
- Are friendly and approachable
Leaders Emphasizing Consideration
Insist on rigid work methods.
Insist on being informed.
Push subordinates for increased effort.
Decide in detail on what to do and how to do it.
Leaders Emphasizing Initiating Structure
The _______ is primarily concerned about production and only minimally concerned about people. This leader, categorized under the term task management, believes that the primary leadership responsibility is to see that the work is completed
The 9, 1 leader
The ________ is primarily concerned about people and only incidentally concerned about production. This leader, who practices country club management, believes that a supervisor's major responsibility is to establish harmonious relationships among subordinates and to provide a secure and pleasant work atmosphere.
The 1, 9 leader
The ________ under the classification of impoverished management, is concerned neither about production nor people. This leader would attempt to stay out of the way and not become involved in the conflict between the necessity for production and the attainment of good working relationships.
The 1, 1 leader
The _________ reflects a middle-ground position and thus practices middle-of-the-road management. This leader would seek to compromise between high production and employee satisfaction.
The 5, 5 leader
The _________ behavior is the most effective–it is the one best way. This style, termed team management, is practiced by leaders who achieve high production through the effective use of participation and involvement of people and their ideas
The 9, 9 leader's
A recurring theme in contingency leadership theory and practice is the concept of ________ by subordinates in organizational decision making.
participation
Makes productive contributions through talent, knowledge, skills, and good working habits
Level 1 Highly capable individual
Contributes to the acheievement of group objectives; works effectively with others i a group setting
Level 2 Contributing team member
Organizes people and resources toward the effective and efficient pursuit of predetermined objectives
Level 3 Competent Manager
Catalyzes committemnt to and vigorous pursuit of a clear and compelling vision; stimulates the group to high performance standards
Level 4 Effective Leader
Builds enduring greatness through a paradoxical combination of personal humility plus professional will
Level 5 Executive
This dimension refers to the degree of confidence the subordinates have in the leader. It also includes the loyalty shown to the leader and the leader's attractiveness
Leader-member relations
This dimension refers to the degree to which the subordinates' jobs are routine rather than nonroutine.
Task structure
This dimension refers to the power inherent in the leadership position. It includes the rewards and punishments typically associated with the position, the leader's official authority (based on ranking in the managerial hierarchy), and the support that the leader receives from superiors and the overall organization.
Position Power
_________ prescribes which leader behaviors are likely to be effective under different situational constraints. Leaders are expected to change their behavior as the situation warrants. This theory views leadership as the vital link between the organization and the individual worker. Leaders need to motivate workers to understand how their work efforts are tied to valued salary increases, promotions, praise, recognition, and respect
Path-Goal Theory
Through interviews with ninety reputedly charismatic leaders, researchers identified a set of behavior strategies used by these individuals...
- Focusing attention on specific issues of concern, concentrating on analysis, problem solving, and action

- Communicating with empathy and sensitivity

- Demonstrating consistency and trustworthiness by one's behavior, being honest, sticking with a decision, and following through on decisions

- Expressing active concern for people including one's self, thus modeling self-regard, and reinforcing feelings of self-worth in others
Other researchers have developed a matrix of five characteristics of charismatic leaders
- Strategic vision and articulation
- Sensitivity to the environment
- Unconventional behavior
- Personal risk
- Sensitivity to other's needs