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59 Cards in this Set

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A strategy that a negotiating party uses during the negotiations

Once initial negotiating positions have been articulated and understood, the parties enter into bargaining. The best negotiators and deal makers master two tools: conditions and concessions.

Some additional bargaining gambits include:
- Good guy/bad guy
- Poker face
- Patience and persistence
- Common ground

Frequent negotiators are constantly inventing new approaches.
Bargaining Gambit
Large clients to whom a new venture offers services at a loss to gain the positive-sum effect of using them as a reference with other clients.
Bellwether Customers
In a negotiating session, options and alternatives that help the negotiator establish a bargaining floor and determine whether the negotiation is worth continuing; also called a walkaway alternative.
Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement (BATNA)
A strategy that a negotiating party uses to close a negotiating session.

As bargaining positions harden and a mutual agreement approaches, the parties have an opportunity to close the negotiation.
Vulnerability can be used to the entrepreneur’s advantage through the following closing gambits:
- Nibbling/whittling
- Reframing the deal
- Appealing to ego
Closing Gambit
What a negotiator gives in a negotiation.
What a negotiator gets in a negotiation.
A tactical move that a party makes during negotiations to better its position.
Zero-sum negotiations involving tactics that often include a third party as a mediator or arbitrator. Disputes that end up in court often result in lose-lose outcomes
Lose-lose Negotiation
Negotiations in which one or more parties views the negotiation process as a zero-sum game. Also called Distributive negotiating
Lose-win Negotiation
A process in which two or more parties attempt to reach acceptable agreement in a situation characterized by some level of real or potential disagreement.
The art and practice of attending social events and connecting with individuals who may be able to assist with the entrepreneurial venture
A strategy that a negotiating party uses to open a negotiation.

Negotiators can start a negotiation by:
- Asking for more than one can get.
- Offering less than one is willing to pay.
- Never saying yes to the first offer.
- Flinching at the first offer.

A key to opening a negotiation is to avoid conflict
Opening Gambit
A view of the negotiation process in which the negotiating parties create new substantive and relationship value as a result.
Positive-Sum Game
Outcomes that affect the status of the interpersonal relationship between the parties to the negotiation.
Relationship Outcomes
The situation in which resources are limited and must be acquired, applied, and managed efficiently.
Finding something that was needed but wasn't necessarily being sought
The final terms of the negotiated agreement.
Substantive Outcomes
Negotiations in which both parties are satisfied with the outcome and neither party has a sense of loss.

Parties are satisfied with outcome and don’t have a sense of loss

Based on the assumption that the parties are engaged in a positive-sum game

Bellwether customers can be important for entrepreneurs convincing other potential clients of the viability of the new venture

Effective win-win negotiation is accomplished in three steps:
- Building a foundation
- Exploring the possibilities for a solution
- Seeking agreement
Win-Win Negotiating
A view of the negotiation process in which limited resources are assumed and the goal is to obtain control of those resources.
Zero-Sum Game
Networking skills have been identified as one of the most important factors distinguishing successful entrepreneurs from those who are not successful. (T or F)
Entrepreneurs should narrow their social network to gain access to crucial resources.
(T or F)
Successful entrepreneurs do not waste time attending industry-linked social functions and events in the simple hope of a serendipitous encounter.
(T or F)
The ability to develop common ground into a mutually beneficial business relationship requires negotiating skills. (T or F)
Entrepreneurs negotiate nearly every day because the environment in which they are working is characterized by profusion. (T or F)
Everything is negotiable, and a firm response of yes is only an opening position in business negotiations.
(T or F)
Research has shown that an entrepreneur's social network varies from time to time depending on the different phases of the venture's life.
(T or F)
Parties to a win-win negotiation are satisfied with the outcome and don't have a sense of victory
(T or F)
Lose-lose negotiation is zero-sum and involves tactics that often include a third party as a mediator or arbitrator.
(T or F)
One effective preparation objective is for entrepreneurs to determine their BATNA before entering the negotiation process
(T or F)
In which phase do entrepreneurs discuss their initial idea and develop their business concept?
Motivation Phase
Which of the following is a straightforward technique that the entrepreneur can use to be effective in networking?
A) Make a great first impression.
B) Ask open-ended questions.
C) Be an active listener.
D) All of the above
Which of the following web services provides entrepreneurs the opportunity to connect with a wide range of other entrepreneurs, professional service providers, and consultants via the Internet?

_____ helps people make connections and grow their networks. Members get a free networking-oriented home page and can send messages to other members. They can also join special networks related to their industry, interests, or location. More than 200 organizations host networks on ______ to help their members interact with each other and grow their organizations
All negotiations consist of
A) interdependence and conflict.
B) Opportunistic interaction.
C) Possibility of agreement.
D) All of the above
Which type of negotiation is in use when someone orders merchandise for retail display?
Entrepreneurs use their networking skills for a variety of reasons:
- Acquiring new business
- Finding new employees and other human resources
- Learning new ways of doing things that may be better than the old ways
- Obtaining resources such as money, office space, telephone systems, and so on
The venture development phases identified by the investigators are:
The motivation phase: Entrepreneurs discuss the initial idea and develop their business concept.

The planning phase: Entrepreneurs seek the knowledge and resources needed to launch the venture.

The establishment phase: Entrepreneurs actually establish and run the venture.
The webs of contacts that help bring about success are called
Social Capital
there are some straightforward techniques that the entrepreneur can use to be effective in networking. Here is a list of eight such techniques:
- Make a great first impression
- Remember names
- Ask open-ended questions
Open-ended questions tell people that you are interested in them, and such questions allow people to talk about themselves. Some examples include:Tell me about your business, What services do you provide, How is your industry doing? and What are your biggest challenges?
- Be an active listener
- Establish common ground
- Seek to help others first
- Be able to describe how your venture helps others
- Follow up
the following web services provide entrepreneurs the opportunity to connect with a wide range of other entrepreneurs, professional service providers, and consultants via the Internet:
- LinkedIn
- Friendster
In fact, some networking consultants advise that the primary objective of networking should be to...
Gain an understanding of others' concerns and problems.
Establishing _________ is the goal of networking
Key contacts
Entrepreneurs negotiate with ______________ to obtain money for their ventures
Angels and Venture Capitalist
Entrepreneurs also negotiate with many other people, including customers, vendors, suppliers, and investors. All negotiations, regardless of the context or parties, consist of four basic elements:
- Interdependence.
- Conflict
- Opportunistic interaction
- Possibility of agreement
Entrepreneurs who know their BATNA, which is also called the...
Walkaway alternative
In general, three types of outcomes can be produced through negotiating:
- Lose-win
- Lose-lose
- Win-win.
The actions in each step of the win-win negotiation are guided by five general rules, called the Five Cs:
- Concentrate on each side’s interests
- Create an appropriate climate
- Communicate clearly
- Carry out a practical process
- Consider each side’s effectiveness
Research on the fundamental factors that make negotiations effective has identified four primary factors:
- Obtaining substantial results
- Influencing the balance of power
- Promoting a constructive climate
- Obtaining procedural flexibility
Five generic bargaining gambits based on the conditions and concessions concepts are...
- Refuse to make any concessions until all the demands are known.
- Negotiate the negotiations
- Condition any agreement on approval of a higher authority
- Never make a concession without asking for one in return.
- Condition all concessions on one another
_________ is a provider of private online networking tools used by more than 800,000 people in all industries and across the globe. By managing their existing network on LinkedIn, people can discover inside connections they never knew they had and reach the people they need to meet through referrals from others they already know and trust
________ is more socially oriented than either Ryze or LinkedIn. Nonetheless, its online services enable entrepreneurs to create their own personal and private networks where they can interact with people who are connected through networks of mutual acquaintances.
Researchers have begun to assess the importance of the entrepeneur's ______ as a means to gain support, knowledge, and access to distribution channels
Social network
An entrepreneur's social network has several characteristics. One of these characteristics is the size of the network. Entrepreneurs can enlarge their social network to gain access to crucial resources. Another characteristic of an entrepreneur's social network is ________
________ is the resources, support, and advice that an entrepreneur's social network can provide to the growing venture
Social Capital
The four basic elements of negotiations are
- Inter­dependence
- Conflict
- Opportunistic interaction
- Possibility of agreement
Entrepreneurs spend least amount of time during phase 1 and that phase ____ entrepreneurs spend the most time developing their network
Phase 2
Phase ____ entrepreneurs spend an amount of time somewhere between phases 1 and 2
Phase 3
Phase 3 entrepreneurs spend an amount of time somewhere between phases 1 and _____
The acronym SHE stands for...
Smile, handshake, and eye contact
Entrepreneurs negotiate every day because the environment in which they work is characterized by _______