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184 Cards in this Set

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Allegory
Allegory - An allegory is an extended metaphor, especially a story in which fictional characters and actions are used to understand and express aspects of concepts relating to human existence.
Alliteration
is the repetition of initial sounds in neighboring words.
EX: In clichés: sweet smell of success, a dime a dozen, bigger and better, jump for joy
Wordsworth: And sings a solitary song that whistles in the wind.
Allusion
The act of alluding; indirect reference: Without naming names, the candidate criticized the national leaders by allusion. An instance of indirect reference: an allusion to classical mythology in a poem. A brief reference to another subject
Analogy
A collection of literary works gathered in a single volume
Anthology
An anthology is a collection of poems, stories, songs, articles, or other literary passages chosen by a compiler.
Apostrophe
An apostrophe is an address to
• an absent person, or (speaking to someone dead)
• A personified abstraction or thing.
• Address to an absent figure or to a thing as if it were present and could listen ("O rose, thou art sick!")
O eloquent, just, and mighty Death!
Autobiography
The biography of a person written by that person
Biography
An account of a person's life written, composed, or produced by another
Bootlegger
someone who makes or sells illegal liquor
Deus ex machine
God from a machine. Describes a miraculous or fortuitous turn of events in a work of fiction.
Darwinism
Herbert Spencer – Believed that the constant interchange of forces tend to change all forms of life from the simple to the complex. He believed that the mind of the human being has advanced from the simple automatic responses of lower animals to the reasoning progress. He claimed there were two types of knowledge: 1) knowledge gained by the individual 2) knowledge gained by the race. He said intuition, or knowledge learned unconsciously, was inherited knowledge or experience of the race. We know some of the things we know because our ancestors learned it and we inherited the knowledge.
Epitaph
An inscription on a tomb in memory of the person
Euphemism
A euphemism is an expression intended by the speaker to be less offensive, disturbing, or troubling to the listener than the word or phrase it replaces, or in the case of doublespeak to make it less troublesome for the speaker.
Expatriates
One who has taken up residence in a foreign country. One who has renounced one's native land.
Flashback
an unexpected but vivid recurrence of a past experience
Frame story
is a narrative technique whereby a main story is composed, at least in part, for the purpose of organizing a set of shorter stories, each of which is a story within a story—or for surrounding a single story within a story.
Free verse
Verse composed of variable, usually unrhymed lines having no fixed metrical pattern
Gertrude Stein
American writer Gertrude Stein (1874-1946) was a powerful literary force in the period around World War I. Although the ultimate value of her writing was a matter of debate, in its time it profoundly affected the work of a generation of American writers. She influenced many leading artists and writers, including Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, Georges Braque, Sherwood Anderson, and Ernest Hemingway. She called those during the war, the lost generation.
Gilded age
Named after an 1873 social satire by Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner, the Gilded Age encompasses the years from the 1870s to 1900. Scholars tend to see the legacies of the Civil War and Reconstruction as important contributors to the transformations that took place in the last three decades of the nineteenth century.
Hedonist
A person devoted to pleasure and luxury
Hyperbole
a figure of speech which is an exaggeration. Persons often use expressions such as "I nearly died laughing," "I was hopping mad," and "I tried a thousand times." Such statements are not literally true, but people make them to sound impressive or to emphasize something, such as a feeling, effort, or reaction.
In medias res
In the middle of things.
Inversion
device of poetry is the changing of the usual order of words
Irony
Using a word of phrase to mean the opposite of its normal meaning. (Having the flue is so much fun!) OR a gap between what is said/meant or what a character knows/what audience knows. 2) The use of words to express something different from and often opposite to their literal meaning.
Jazz age
The novelist F. Scott Fitzgerald coined the term "Jazz Age" retrospectively to refer to the decade after World War I and before the stock market crash in 1929, during which Americans embarked upon what he called "the gaudiest spree in history."
Monologue
an extended speech uttered by one speaker, either to others or as if alone
Lost generation
Group of U.S. writers who came of age during World War I and established their reputations in the 1920s; more broadly, the entire post – World War I American generation. The term was coined by Gertrude Stein in a remark to Ernest Hemingway. The writers considered themselves "lost" because their inherited values could not operate in the postwar world and they felt spiritually alienated from a country they considered hopelessly provincial and emotionally barren
Lyceum
an educational institution (often a school of secondary education in Europe), or a public hall used for cultural events like concerts. Or a gymnasium in Athens.
Marxism
Karl Marx - The political and economic philosophy of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in which the concept of class struggle plays a central role in understanding society's allegedly inevitable development from bourgeois oppression under capitalism to a socialist and ultimately classless society. Marx believed that eventually the masses of “have nots (people who do the labor but reap no rewards for their work)” would become desperate because of poverty and seize control of the government – thus destroying the capitalist society. With the destruction of capitalism, a classless society would emerge – all would share fairly in the wealth of the new society. “The haves” (who control the production of goods and possess most of the wealth.
Metaphor
a figure of speech in which a term or phrase is applied to something to which it is not literally applicable in order to suggest a resemblance, as in “A mighty fortress is our God.”
Nietzhism
Frederick Nietzsche – believed that the greatest force in the world is will. This is not only to survive but to also to achieve power. Anything that contributes to power is good – be it strength of will, boldness, cunning or intelligence. Whatever leads to weakness is bad 0 be it gentleness, modesty, generosity, or compassion. He believed that the two greatest enemies of a good society are democracy and Christianity.
Noble Savage
the noble savage was the man of nature who lived according to the dictates of natural law, thought according to natural reason, and understood God and creation by way of natural religion. EX: cavemen
Nouveau riche
new money
Paradox
A seemingly contradictory statement.
Personification
the attribution of a personal nature or character to inanimate objects or abstract notions, esp. as a rhetorical figure
Point of View
the position of the narrator in relation to the story, as indicated by the narrator's outlook from which the events are depicted and by the attitude toward the characters.
Posthumous
After death. EX: many author’s books are famous posthumously.
Prohibition
The period (1920–1933) during which the 18th Amendment forbidding the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages was in force in the United States.
Prolific
Writing more than 50 stories. EX: Hemmingway was prolific.
Pseudonym
- a fictitious name used by an author to conceal his or her identity; pen name.
Rhetorical Question
A rhetorical question is an illocutionary act that
• has the direct illocutionary force of a question, and
• is not generally used with the expectation of an answer but with some different, indirect force, such as
Satire
A literary work in which human vice or folly is attacked through irony, derision, or wit. The branch of literature constituting such works. See synonyms at caricature. Irony, sarcasm, or caustic wit used to attack or expose folly, vice, or stupidity.
Simile
- a figure of speech in which two unlike things are explicitly compared, as in “she is like a rose.”
Slice of life story
a short narrative sketch, setting forth a particular moment in the lives of simple humble people
Sobriquet
a nickname or a fancy name, usually a familiar name given by others as distinct from a pseudonym assumed as a disguise, but a nickname which is familiar enough such that it can be used in place of a real name without the need of explanation.
Speakeasies
A place for the illegal sale and consumption of alcoholic drinks, as during Prohibition in the United States.
Stanza
One of the divisions of a poem, composed of two or more lines usually characterized by a common pattern of meter, rhyme, and number of lines
Stream of Consciousness
the continuous flow of conscious experience through the mind
Synecdoche
a figure of speech in which the one of the following (or its reverse) is expressed:
EX: Fifty head referring to 50 head of cattle
Cat referring to a lion
Verisimilitude
the degree to which the writer presents the truth
Vernacular
the local language or dialect of common speech; or (as an adjective) written in such a local language or dialect.
Theocracy
A government ruled by or subject to religious authority.
Walt Whitman’s most popular collect of poetry is entitled?
The Leaves of Grass
In the preface to one of his poetry collections, Whitman states that poetry must embrace every aspect of life even the and the ?
Ugly; shameful
The majority of Whitman’s poetry is written in what particular style?
free verse
Emily Dickinson grew up in ?
amherst, ma
While Emily lived, only of her nearly poems were published?
7 of 1800
Emily’s poems are both and ?
traditional and unusual
The subject of most of Dickinson’s poems is the connection between the happenings of and the world of the ?
Everyday life; spirits
The rhythm of Emily’s poems is based primarily on?
church hymns
Dickinson’s mode of expression is often abrupt?
concised or informed
What might have influenced Whitman when he wrote this poem?
? He was affected by the increase in industrialization in America – jobs, prosperity, growing cities – new individual freedom
His poetry celebrates the “divine condition” of being alive with an intensity that seems to unite all forms of life – human, animal, natural without discrimination?
walt whitman
The poet of Democracy?
walt whitman
He wrote “I Hear America Singing”?
walt whitman
Dickinson wore only ?
white
Dickinson’s poems revealed a woman with?
A mind of her own with a love of nature and a deep faith
Dickinson wrote these poem –
“The Belle of Amherst”, “Because I Could Not Stop for Death”, “I Never Saw a Moor”, “Much Madness is Divinest Sense”, “”Hope” is a Thing With Feathers”, “I Heard a Fly buzz when I died”, “Success is Counted Sweetest”, “This is my Letter to the World”, “The Bustle in a House”, “There’s a Certain Slant of Light”, “Some Keep the Sabbath Going to Church”,. “A Bird came down the Walk.”
He captures the diversity of the American people and conveys the energy and the intensity of all walks of life?
Walt Whitman
He wrote these poems – “When I Heard the Learned Astronomer”, “O Captain! My Captain”,
walt whitman
Modernism started around?
1900-1950s
Edgar Lee Masters was famous for what story?
Spoon River Anthology”
F. Scott Fitzgerald was known for?
The king of the jazz age
Edwin Arlington Robinson
– Wrote long narrative poems in blank verse
She helped writers find their own unique style?
Gertrude Stein
Many writers/artists went to Europe, Paris, they were called?
expatriates
influenced by Stein were:
Sherwood Anderson, Ernest Hemmingway, and F. Scott Fitzgerald
She won the Pulitzer Prize for her novel The Optimist’s Daughter?
Eudora Welty
Eudora was known for the short story?
a worn path
Ernest Hemmingway was best known for?
Old Man and the Sea & For Whom the Belles Tolls
John Steinbeck won the Pulitzer Prize for the books:
“Of Mice and Men”, “The Pearl”, “The Grapes of the Wrath”
Katherine Anne Porter was famous for this novel?
The Jilting of Granny Weatherall”
James Thurber was known for?
“The Catbird Seat” and “The Secret Life of Walter Mitty”
Realism took place in
c 1850s – 1900
Realism
The realistic writer was concerned with recording the details of ordinary life-showing life was it really was.
Twain referred the Realism age (1850s-1900s)?
gilded age
Some referred the Realism age (1850s-1900s) as?
the golden age
Realistic writers wrote about all walks of life:
slums and factoring, workers and bosses, corrupt politicians and pretty criminals, social outcasts and the rising middle class, shopkeepers and slum dwellers, etc.
William Dean Howells was the father of?
american realism
William Dean Howells was best known for his novel?
The Rises of Silascamphm
Walt Whitman was able to derive an optimistic view of what?
The American Character
William Dean Howells believed that realism should do what 3important things?
? Deal with the lives of ordinary people, be faithful to the development of the character even at the expense of them, and discuss the social questions perplexing Americans.
Naturalism
naturalists relied heavily on the growing scientific disciplines of psychology and sociology
In the eyes of some naturalist writers,?
,? Human beings were totally subject to the natural laws of the universe.
Stephen Cran’s principle interest was what?
situations
Realist and naturalist were?
Stephen Crane and Jack London
Stephen Crane wrote based on the civil war after the war ended is?
“The Red Badge of Courage”
He wrote the “Open Boat”?
Stephen Crane
Maggie: A girl of the Streets was the first?
Naturalistic American Novel
Maggie: A girl of the Streets was written by?
Stephen crane
Crane shared with other naturalistic writers a belief in the influence of the?
Environment in determining destiny
John Griffith London widely known as?
Jack London
Jack London was a supporter of?
Marx’s Socialism
London’s experience in Alaska taught him about?
The human desire for wealth and power and man’s inability to control nature
London earned national fame at age twenty six when what was published?
The Call of the Wild
London was extremely? Prolific
He also wrote these American Classics: “The Sea-Wolf”, “White Fang”, “Martin Eden”, and “To Build a Fire”
JackLondon
London earned national fame at age twenty six when what was published?
the call of the wild
London was extremely?
prolific
London supports a violent type of socialism?
the laboring class would overthrow the capitalist
London’s life and writings help to illustrate?
The contradictions and divisions of America; the wide gap that exists between the wealthy and the poor
Local Color –
The habits, speech, customs appearance, of people from one geographical region
Brete Harte
Popular local color writer of the Farwest
Wrote “The Luck of Roaring Camp”, “The Outcast of Poker Flat”?
brete harte
Harte played a role in creating a portrait of the?
old west
Mary Wilkins Freeman
New England Nun
New England Nun’s significance
Eccentric characters driven by too much isolation
Kate Chopin was a southern writer who moved to New Orleans was famous for her novel?
“The Awakening” and for some of her short stories “Desiree’s Baby”, “The Storm”, “The Story of an Hour”, “A pair of Silk Stockings”
What story examines how woman used to live?
story of an hour
Who received an honorary doctorate in Yale?
edith wharton
Who joined a Canadian army?
william faulkner
Who was from Hannibal Missouri?
mark twain
Mark Twain was known for these novels?
Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn, Life on the Mississippi (1883) and A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court (1889) and the short story The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County (1867).
Samuel Langhorne Clemens is?
Mark Twain
Brete Harte wrote?
"The Luck of Roaring Camp" and "The Outcasts of Poker Flat”
Willa Cather’s themes were:
: The dilemma of individuals who move in societies too small for their aspirations, the gap that separates the perceptive and sensitive person from the crass and dull, and the survival of tragedy and hardship to keep the family together and tame the land
She wrote: “O Pioneers!”, “My Antonia”, “A Sculptor’s Funeral”, and “A Wagner Matinee”?
Willa cather
Willa Cather found inspiration for her literary works were
“The land, open to the sky, rolling w/o interruption to the distant horizon”
Cather Traces the?
? Dilemma of individuals who move in societies too small for their aspirations
Edith Wharton was born into an?
Old money family
Edith Wharton was a product of what?
American Aristocrat
She was best known for her novels: “The house of Mirth”, “Ethan Frome”, “and The Age of Innocence”
edith wharton
Wharton received what for “the Age of Innocence”?
Pulitzer Prize, first woman to receive this honor
Edga Lee Masters –
“Epigrams from the Greek Anthology””Spoon River Anthology” “Lucinda Matlock” “Fiddler Jones”
Jamers Thurber
considered the formost American humorist of the 20th century
E.Bwhite found some of his drawings in a trash can and submitted them for publication?
james thurber
Who was from Hannibal Missouri?
mark twain
Mark Twain was known for these novels?
Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn, Life on the Mississippi (1883) and A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court (1889) and the short story The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County (1867).
Samuel Langhorne Clemens is?
Mark Twain
Brete Harte wrote?
"The Luck of Roaring Camp" and "The Outcasts of Poker Flat”
Willa Cather’s themes were:
: The dilemma of individuals who move in societies too small for their aspirations, the gap that separates the perceptive and sensitive person from the crass and dull, and the survival of tragedy and hardship to keep the family together and tame the land
She wrote: “O Pioneers!”, “My Antonia”, “A Sculptor’s Funeral”, and “A Wagner Matinee”?
Willa cather
Willa Cather found inspiration for her literary works were
“The land, open to the sky, rolling w/o interruption to the distant horizon”
Cather Traces the?
? Dilemma of individuals who move in societies too small for their aspirations
Edith Wharton was born into an?
Old money family
Edith Wharton was a product of what?
American Aristocrat
She was best known for her novels: “The house of Mirth”, “Ethan Frome”, “and The Age of Innocence”
edith wharton
Wharton received what for “the Age of Innocence”?
Pulitzer Prize, first woman to receive this honor
Edga Lee Masters –
“Epigrams from the Greek Anthology””Spoon River Anthology” “Lucinda Matlock” “Fiddler Jones”
Jamers Thurber
considered the formost American humorist of the 20th century
E.Bwhite found some of his drawings in a trash can and submitted them for publication?
james thurber
James Thurber –
“All right, have it your way – you heard aseal bark!” “The night the bed fell” The secret life of walkter mitty” “The catbird seat” and “my life and hardtimes
William Faulkner
“The sound and the fiery” “As I lay dying” “Light in august” “Absalom, absalom” “Afable” “The bear” “a rose for emily” “barn burning” and “ shingles for the lord”
Faulkner used new literary techniques
unusual point of views and stream of consciousness
West egg – Buchannans
Katherine Anne Porter
The jilting ofgrann weatherall” “flowering judas”
Tennessee williams
thomas lanier williams II
As a child diagnosed with diptheria for 2 years
Tennessee williams
His great influence was his sister who was diagnosed with schizophrenia
Tennessee williams
A common theme that appears in many of Williams plays is ?
mad heroine
Edwin A Robinson
a land of suddenly diminishing oppurtunities, of large old fashionedhouses, and of lonely dreamers who once had been prosperous and happy
Many of his poems are written in sonnet form, and he was a master of the dramatic monologue?
Edwin A Robinson
Wrote Children of the night, tilbury town, richard cory, miniver cheevy ?
Edwin A Robinson
Modern during
– 1900-1950s
Eurdora Welty
A worn path
John steinbeck wont pulitzer prize for both the
Of mice and men, the pearl, and the grapes of wrath
The hemmingway code
The importancce of recognizing and grabbing up the rare good rich moments that life offers.
Ezra Pound and T.S Eliot “The wasteland”
Symbolized Modernists movement
5 elements of American Modernism
rejection of traditional themse and loss of faith in the american dream, imperfect hero , etc
Realism/Naturalism
Stephen Crane, Jack London
Local color/regionalism
mark twain, brete herte, willa cather, kate chopin, edith wharton, marry wilkins freeman
Modernism
– edgar lee masters, Edwin arlington robinson, william faulkner, ernest hemingway, f. scott fitzgerald, tennessee williams, katherine anne porter, james thurber
Earnest hemingway
For whome the belle tolls, the old man and the sea, a moveable feast, the sun also rises, the torrents ofspring, death in the afternoon,
F scott fitzergerald
the romantic egotist, campsheridan, this side of paradise, the beautiful and the damned, great necklong island, the great gatsby, tender is the night, theloveof the last tycooon
Eudora welty
– a curtain of green, a worn path, optimist daughter
Eurdora's characters are united by a common core of?
Shared belief and attitude
Buck -
A powerful dog, half St. Bernard and half sheepdog,
Spitz
- Buck’s archrival and the original leader of Francois’s dog team. Spitz is a fierce animal—a “devil-dog,” one man calls him—who is used to fighting with other dogs and winning.
Francois -
A French Canadian mail driver who buys Buck and adds him to his team.
Perrault -
A French Canadian who, together with Francois, turns Buck into a sled dog for the Canadian government.
Hal -
An American gold seeker, Hal comes to Canada with his sister, Mercedes, and her husband, Charles, in search of adventure and riches.
Charles
- Hal’s brother-in-law and Mercedes’ husband. Charles shares their inexperience and folly.
Dave -
A dog on Buck’s team. Dave becomes ill on one of the team’s journeys but refuses to leave the harness, preferring to die pulling the sled.
Sol-leks -
An older, more experienced dog on Buck’s team
Manuel -
stealsbuck a gardener
judge miller
Buck’s original master, the owner of a large estate in California’s Santa Clara Valley.