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57 Cards in this Set

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Glucocorticoids
help control bodies metabolism
Mineralcorticoids
involved in regulating the amount of water in the body
Exocrine Glands
-Skin Glands
-Mammary
-Salivary
-Pancrectic acini(cells dumping enzymes into GI tract)
-Gastric Glands
Endocrine Glands
-Thyroid and parathyroid
-Adrenal
-Pancreatic Islets
-Gonads(testis and ovaries)
-Pineal Gland
-Anterior Pituitary
Intercellular Communication
-direct(gap junctions)
-indirect:1)via paracrines or local hormones like prostalandins,histamines,local growth hormone
2)indirect vie endocrine agents or hormones
3)Indirect via synapses and neurotransmitters
Target Cell
-Targets recognition is due to the prescence of a receptor
-that is often but not always a surface protein that is part of the cells glycolyx
Paracrine
-local hormones that act on nearby cells
-do not commonly travel through the blood like circulating hormones(eg,IL-2 and NO)
Autocrine
-groups of local hormones that act on the same cells that secreted them
-could also be IL-2
-this is positive feedback
Tropic Hormone
hormone that targets another endocrine gland
Examples of Tropic Hormones
-Adrenocorticotropic Hormone(ACTH)
-Thyroid Stimulating Hormone(TSH)
-Tropic Hormone
-Follicile Stimulating Hormone(FSH)acts on gonads
-Luteinizing Hormone(LH)acts on gonads
-Hypothalmic realeasing and Inhibiting Factors(Rfs and Ifs)
Hormone at the target
-free(active) hormone binds to the receptor initiates the target response through transcription
-this mechanism is used primarily for lipid soluble hormones
-Most water soluble hormones are transported in free form(same transport mechanism used for many drugs)
Excess/Spent hormone
-circulated to the liver for: biodegradation to excretable waste products-GI elimination in feces or waste product reenter the blood and the kidney secretes it into the urine
Hormone Classification:Chemical Composition
-Lipids which include: Steroids
Eicosanoids
-Amino Acid derivates
-Peptides
Lipids Steroids(Lipid Soluble)
-All derived from a singe precursor molecule cholesterol
-Are lipid soluble and diffuse directly into the cytoplasm
-Once inside the cell:They bind to cytoplasmic receptors and form a complex that can enter the nucleus
-Once Inside the nucleus:the complex can directly stimulate genes to activate transcription and make new proteins to alter cellular structure or function
Examples of Steroids
-Vitamin D
-Sex steroids:Estrogen,progesterone,testosterone
-Glucocorticoids-hormones of chronic stress(Coristol,Cortisone,Corticosterone)
-Mineralcorticoids-aldosterone
Eicosanoids(Lipids)
-derived form the 20-carbon fatty acid-arachidonic acid
-Include:
Prostaglandins
Leukotrienes(like singulare)
Leukotrienes
-are local hormones which act as paracrines and autocrines mediating: inflammation,fever induction, pain
Amino Acid Derivatives
-all derived from amino acid precursor molecules including:
-tyrosine-a nonessential(body can make it) amino acid.
-Tryptophan-converted into Melotonin(which is secreted by the pineal gland)
Examples of Tyrosine derivatives
-Catecholamines(Dopamine,Epinephrine,norepinephrine)
-Thyrohormones including:
-T-3(Triiodo-thyronine(3 iodines)and T4 Tetraiodo-thyronine(Thyroxin 4 iodines)
Pepetides(Small Peptides)
-Hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones
-oxytocin
-Antidiuretic Hormone(ADH)
Polypeptides
-Insulin
-Glucagon
-Parathormone
-MSH
-Thymosin
-Melatonin
-HGH
-ACTH
Glycoproteins(a sub category of peptides)
-FSH
-LH
-TSH
Humoral
-Through changes in blood composition or concentrations
-increases in blood calcium-stimulates calcitonin
-decrease in blood glucose-stimulates glucagon
-an increase in blood glucose-stimulates insulin
Neuronal
-via sympathetic motor neurons as in epinephrine/adreniline release into the curculation,via fight or flight response to acute stress
Hormonal
-via tropic hormones
-ACTH stimulating production and secretion of glucocorticoids
also including:
TSH stimulating production and secretion of T3 and T4
FSH and LH stimulating production and secretion of sex steroids
Central(CNS)Endocrine System
Includes:
Pituitary Gland(hypophysis)
Hypothalamus
pineal gland
Peripheral Endocrine System
-Thyroid
-Thymus
-Adrenals(medulla and cortex)
-Pancreatic islets
-Gonads
-Parathyroid glands
Direct Action
Lipids
-inside they combined with cytosolic receptors
-hormone receptor complex enters the nucleus and stimulates the DNA directly
-initiates the process of transcription
-lead to translation
-start protein synthesis
-Steroids often work by this mechanism as do T3 and T4
Indirect Action
-Requires a surface receptor
-Once the hormone binds to the surface recpetor the process of signal transduction in initiated
-the hormone functions as the 1st messenger activating the G-protein molecule
-the G-Protein then activates the enzyme adenylate cyclase
-adenylate cyclase inturn converts ATP into cyclicAMP which is the 2nd messenger(known as signal transduction)
-The second messenger is often responsible for stimulating an intracellular enzyme system(kinase,proteins that open ion channels, activation) which leads to the target response
Prolactin and Oxytocin(Synergism)
-Prolactin promotes milk formation
-oxytocin makes the milk available
-both are essential for nursing
Estrogen and progesterone(synergisim)
-work together to prepare the uterus for pregnancy
-Estrogen restores the uterine endometrium in Proliferative Phase
-Progesterone makes it thick, spongy and promotes glycogen-rich secretions during the secretory phase
Follicle stimulating hormone(FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone(LH)
-FSH promotes preliminary egg development
-LH completes development and stimulates ovulation
Estrogen and Testosterone(Antagonism)
-in gender determination
-Estrogen promotes female development
-testosterone promotes male development
Insulin and Glucagon(Antagonism)
-in blood glucose levels
-insulin lowers blood glucose
-glucagon raises it
Parathormone(PTH) and Calcitonin(CT)(Regulation)
-in blood calcium regulation
-parathormone increases serum calcium
-CT lowers serum levels
Anterior Pituitary or Adenohypohysis
-the true glandular portion of the pituitary
Posterior Pituitary or Neurohypophysis
not an endocrine gland but part of the CNS
Hypothalamus
-contains 2 important endocrine nuclei that produce and secrete 2 important neurohormones
-Paraventricular nucleus-produced abd secretes oxytocin or pitocin
-Supraoptic nucleus-produces and secretes ADH
Anterior Pituitary Histology
Acidophilis
Basophils
Chromophobes
Acidophils
-acid loving, stain pink with acidic stains; produce and secrete:
-HGH
-Prolactin
Basophils
base loving, stain purpule with purple dye
-produce and secrete:
FSH
LH
TSH
ACTH
MSH
Chromophobes
Help produce and secrete ACTH fear color
Pitocin(PIT) or oxytocin(OT)
Targets:Smooth muscle of the:
-Uterus-myometrium
-Mammry's alveoli-its myoendotheilum
-Prostate and Vas Deferens
Physiological Affects of Oxytocin
-On mammry OT stimulates contraction of smooth muscle muscularis: to eject milk from the mammary in the Milk Let Down Reflex
-On the Uterus:initiates, sustains, and potentiates the rhythmic contractions of parturition(labor)
-OT has a slight antidiuretic affect
Milk Let down Reflex
OT stimulates decreased progesterone its antagonist
Hyposecretion of OT
-Retarded, prolonged, difficult labor
-nursing frustration- inability to experience milk let down
Hypersecretion of OT
-Rapid delivery
-increased risk of fetal distress syndrome leading to hypoxia causing deafness, blindness, retardation, cerebral palsy etc.
ADH or Vasopressin
-in large doses in constricts blood vessels
-produced and secreted by the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus
-stored and released from the posterior pituitary
targets for ADH
-kidney tubules
Physiological affects of ADH
-Acts to promote increased facultative osmosis or reabsorbtion of electrlyte free water by stimulating production of aquaporin channel proteins in kidney tubule membranes to:
-decrease urine volume
-increase blood volume
-increase blood pressure
ADH releas is stimulated by
-any increase in serum osmolarity
-decrease blood volume
-decrease blood pressure
-increased pain
-cholinergics including ACh,morphine,nicotine
-increased chronic stress(makes you retain water)
Action of ADH
^in blood osmotic pressure hypothalamic osmoreceptors
-osmorecptors activate hypothalamic neurosecretory cells to realease ADH
-Neurosecretory cells release ADH into the bloodstream in the posterior pituitary
ADH causes
-Kidney water retention and low urine output
-decreased sweat production
-Arteriolar constriction
-Low blood osmotic pressure inhibits hypothalamic osmoreceptors
-osmoticreceptor inhibition reduces ADH secretion
ADH is Inhibited by
Ethyl Alcohol
Hyposecretion of ADH
-Polyuria increased urine volume
-HYpotension
-Lack of ADH diagnosed as Diabetes Insipudis with:gross polyuria
-Polydipsia-increased thirst
Hyposecretion of ADH can be caused by
-pathology or head trauma
Hypersecretion of ADH
- resultsin oliguria-urine output
-can be caused by a tumor or SIADH(syndrome of inappropriate ADH production and secretion)