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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Functions of the Endocrine System
Differentiation, stimulation, coordination, maintenance, initiation and correction
What are hormones?
The mechanisms by which the endocrine system responds to cells and organs of the body
What are the ways hormones can be classified?
Structure, gland of origin, effects it has, chemical composition
Do we know everything about hormones?
What type of system do hormones operate?
Positive and negative feedback system
Which gland is known as the “brain” or hormone controller?
What do cells need to have for hormones to work?
Hormone receptors
What factors regulate hormone release?
Chemical factors, hormonal factors and neural control
What is the most common type of feedback?
negative feedback
What does neg feedback help?
maintain the hormones within physiologic ranges
examples of lipid soluble hormones
steriod and thyroid
examples of water soluble hormones
insulin, pituitary, parathyroid, hypothalamic
List three important facts of lipid soluble hormones
-circulate bound to a carrier protein
-very few are able to circulate free
-diffuse through the plasma membrane and bind to nuclear receptors
List three important facts of water soluble hormones
-short half life
-circulate free and unbound
-bind to cell surface receptor
where do water soluble hormones primarily bind
receptors on plasma membrane
what is signal transduction
the way in which the hormones are able to communicate into the cell (the process by which extracellular signals are communicated into a cell)
how do steriod or lipid soluble hormones get into cell
they diffuse across plasma membrane
lipid soluble hormones include...
androgens, estrogens, progestins, glucocortocoids, mineralocorticoids, and thyroid hormones
what type of receptors do lipid soluble hormones bind to
nuclear receptors or cytosolic receptors to bind to specific receptors in the DNA
define up-regulation
when a cell needs a boost and more receptors are created for a more hormonal response (low concentrations of hormone increase the number of receptors per cell)
define down-regulation
less receptors for a less hormonal response (high concentrations of hormone decrease the number of receptors)
define direct effect
the obvious changes in cell function that specifically result from stimulation by a particular hormone
define permissive effects
less obvious hormone-induced changes that facilitate the maximal response or functioning of a cell
What are the most important 2nd-messenger molecules
cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and calcium
what is the original name for ADH and why
vasopressin because in extremely high oses it causes vasoconstriction and a resulting increase in arterial blood pressure.
what process does the thyroid gland control
metabolic processes
what is t3 normal level
80-200 mg
what is t4 normal level
what is normal total calcium level
what is norml ionized calcium level
what vitamin is needed to absorb calcium
vitamin d
what does ADH stand for
antidiuretic hormone
what does ADH do with water
retains water
at what % is ADH turned on
what gland is essential for bone reabsorption
parathyroid glands
what is the pancrease responsible for
what is the major disorder of the pancrease
diabetes mellitus
what does the pancreas house
islets of langerhans
insulin is synthesized by what type of cells
b cells
insulin control is affected by...
increased glucose levels, amino acids, gastrointestinal hormones and parasympathetic stimulation of the b cells
what does low blood levels of glucose mean
decreased insulin secretion
increased levels of insulin
sympathetic stimulation of A cells
somatostatin is produce by what type of cells
d cells
adrenal gland is broken down into what two parts
adrenal cortex
adrenal medulla
what % is the wight of the adrenal cortex
the adrenal cortex secretes what hormones
adrenal androgens and estrogens