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50 Cards in this Set

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How do exocrine and endocrine glands differ?
Exocrine glands secrete their products into ducts that carry the secretions into body cavities, into the lumen of an organ, or to the outer surface of the body.

Endocrine glands secrete their products into the interstitial fluid surrounding the secretory cells. From there, hormones diffuse into blood capillaries and the blood carries them to target cells throughout the body
What is a hormone?
A mediator molecule that is released in one part of the body but regulates the activity of cells in other parts of the body.
How does the Endocrine System compare to the Nervous system?
ES is slower but it's effects generally last longer.

Neurotransmitters usually act locally; hormones usually act on distant organs

NS acts on muscles and glands; ES acts on many kinds of cells throughout the body.
Name two mediators that can act as both a Neurotransmitter and a Hormone
NorEpinephrine and Nitric Oxide
Which organs are exclusively endocrine?
Pituitary
Thyroid
Parathyroid
Adrenal
Pineal
List the functions of hormones
Help regulate metabolism

Control growth and development

Regulate operation of reproductive systems

Help establish circadian rhythms
Generally how many receptors does a target cell have for a particular hormone
2000 to 100,000
If a hormone is present in excess, the number of target cell receptors may decrease. This effect is called?
Down Regulation
True or False: Down regulation makes a target cell less sensitive to a hormone
TRUE
When a hormone is deficient, the number of target cell receptors may increase. This effect is called
Up Regulation
True or False: Up regulation makes a target cell less sensitive to a hormone
FALSE

Up regulation increases receptors in a target cell
What is a circulating hormone?
Hormones that pass from the secretory cells that produce them into interstitial fluid and then the blood
True or False:
Most hormones are Circulating Hormones
True
Local hormones that act on neighboring cells are called?
Paracrine
Local hormones that act on the same cell that secreted them are called?
Autocrine
Can a hormone be both Paracrine and Autocrine?
Yes. Interleukin 2 acts on other nearby cells as well as on the cell the produced it.
What is vasodilation
An increase in blood vessel diameter
What are the Lipid Soluble hormones?
Steroids (Aldosterone, Cortisol, Androgens, Calcitriol, Testosterone, Estrogens, Progesterone)

Thyroid Hormones T3 and T4

The gas Nitric Oxide
What are the Water Soluble hormones
Amine Hormones

Peptide and Protein Hormones

Eicosanoid Hormones
Name three catecholamines:
Epinephrine

Norepinephrine

Dopamine
What are the functions of Transport Proteins
1. They make lipid soluble hormones temporarily water soluble for travel in blood

2. Retard filtration in kidneys reducing hormone loss in urine

3. Provide a reserve of hormone in the blood
Insulin stimulates synthesis of ?
Glycogen in liver cells

Triglycerides in adipose cells
Where are the receptors for lipid soluble hormones located
They are located within the target cell in the cytosol or the nucleus
Where are the receptors for water soluble hormones located
They are located on the plasma membranes of target cells
Endothelial cells lining blood vessels secrete what hormone
Nitric Oxide
Aldosterone, Cortisol and Androgens are secreted from the?
Adrenal cortex
Calcitriol is secreted from the
Kidneys
Testosterone is secreted from the
Testes
Estrogens and Progesterone is secreted from the
Ovaries
T3 and T4 are secreted from what gland and speciafically from what cells
Follicular Cells within the Thyroid gland
The Catecholamines are secreted from the
Adrenal Medulla
The Pineal Gland secretes what hormone
Melatonin
What hormones does the pancreas secrete
Insulin, Glucagon, Somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide
Mast cells in connective tissue secrete what hormone
Histamine
Blood platelets secrete what hormone
Serotonin
Oxytocin and ADH are secreted from
The Posterior pituitary (Neurohypophysis)
What hormones are secreted by the Adenohypophysis?
HGH
TSH
ACTH
FSH
LH
PRL
MSH
What gland produces Calcitonin, specifically what cells
The parafollicular cells of the Parathyroid gland
The stomach and small intestine secrete what hormones?
Gastrin
Secretin
Cholecystokinin
GIP
Erythropoetin is secreted from
Kidneys
Describe the mechanism of action of lipid-soluble hormones
1. Hormone diffuses thru the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane into a cell

2. Hormone binds to and activates receptors within the cytosol or nucleus which alters gene expression turning specific genes on or off

3. Transcription then translation, new enzymes are made which alter cellular activity.
Describe the mechanism of action of water-soluble hormones
1. hormone binds to a receptor on the cell membrane (first messenger)

2. Binding creates a G protein

3. G protein activates Adenylate Cyclase which converts ATP into cAMP (second messenger)

4. cAMP activates protein kinases

5. Protein kinases phosphorylate cellular proteins, turning them on or off

6. Phosphodiesterase inactivates cAMP
4.
What three ways do hormones interact with each other
1. PERMISSIVE: where 2 or more hormones must simultaneously react with target

2. SYNERGISTIC: where 2 hormones together have a greater effect than either alone

3. ANTAGONISTIC: where 2 hormones oppose each other
True or False. Most hormones are regulated by positive feedback mechanisms
False.

They are mostly regulated by negative feedback mechanisms
Name 3 ways that hormone secretions are regulated
1. Signals from the Nervous System

2. Chemical changes in the blood

3. Other hormones
What is the major link between the Nervous System and the Endocrine System?
The Hypothalamus
What hormones does the Hypothalamus make?
OT and ADH which are stored in the posterior pituitary
5 Releasing hormones: GHRH, TRH,GnRH,PRH,CRH
2 inhibitory hormoes: GHIH/somatostatin, PIH/dopamine
What controls the pituitary gland?
The Hypothalamus
The Pituitary is also referred to as
The Hypohysis
The stalk that connects the hypothalamus to the hypophysis is
The infundibulum