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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The respiratory system is diveded into
Upper and Lower airway
Upper Airway extends from
nose and mouth to the Cricoid Cartilage, the most inferior portion of the larynx
Mucous Membrane
Damp, sticky lining in the nose, that filters air moving in the body through the nostrils.
What is a common cause of airway obstruction in a pt with an altered mental status?
the tongue
portion of the pharnyx that extends from the nostrils to the soft pallet.
Central portion of the pharnyx laying between the soft pallet and epiglottis, with the mouth as it's opening.
What two passage ways are found at the lower end of the pharanyx
Trachea and Esophagus
passageway for air traveling into the lungs
route taken by food and water to the stomach
A small flap of tissue that protects the Trachea, acting as a valve that closes over the trachea while food and drink are being swallowed.
What are the best methods to unblock an obstruction of the trachea caused by epiglottis or tongue?
Head-tilt manuever, chin jaw-lift, jaw-thrust manuever. (All pull the epiglottis away from the opening of the larynx.
(Voice box)Superior to the trachea, inferior to epiglottis; contains vocal chords
Thyroid Cartilage
Anterior portion of the Larynx, AKA "Adam's Apple" (can be felt at front of throat.
Cricoid Cartilage
Forms the inferior portion of the Larynx, only completely circular cartilagenous ring of the upper airway. Common site of airway obstruction in Adults, infants, and children.
The Lower Airway
extends from the Cricoid cartilage at the lower edge of the larynx to the alveoli of the lungs.
(Windpipe)the passageway for air entering the lungs extends from larynx to Carina.
point at which the trachea splits into the right and left mainstem Bronchi.
Bronchi (Right and Left)
extend from the Carina to the lungs, where they divide into smaller sections or branches known as Bronchioles.
Diminishing branches of the Bronchi leading to the aveolar sacs.
Serous Fluid
lines the Bronchioles, acting as a lubricant to reduce friction when the layers of the pleura rub against each other during breathing.
What could occur if a hole were made in either pleural layer?
Air may enter the pleural space, increasing the size by drawing in air and collapsing the lung. Seen in blunt and penetrating injuries to the chest.
a muscle that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity, major muscle used in breathing, 60% of effort in ventilation
What is the passage of air into and out of the lungs
What is the process of breathing in air
Inhalation or Inspiration
What is the process of breathing air out
exhalation or expiration
Inhalation is a(n) ______ Process, because it requries energy to contract the muscles.
Exhalation is a(n) ______ Process, because it involves relaxation of the muscles and little energy is expended
The process by which the blood and the cells become saturated with oxygen
The process in which fresh oxygen replaces waste carbon dioxide, a gas exchange that takes place b/w the alveoli and the capillaries inthe lungs, and between the capilllaries and the cells throughout the body
Process of moving air in and out of the lungs
An inadequate amount of oxygen being delivered to the cells
Signs of Hypoxia
Tachpnea, Dyspnea, Pale cool clammy skin, tachycardia, hypertension, restlessness, disorientation, headache
Signs of Severe Hypoxia
Tachypnea, dyspnea, cyanosis, tachycardia that may lead to dysrhythmias, bradycardia, confusion, loss of coordination, sleepy, head bobbing, slow reaction time, altered mental status.
Bluish gray color, late sign of hypoxia, maybe found in the lips, mouth, and around the nose, fingernail beds, oral mucosa
Found on surface of red blood cells, responsible for picking up the oxygen in the blood and carrying it through the arterial system to the capillaries throughout the body.
An open airway is commonly refered to as a(n)
patent airway
Occurs when the upper airway A sound made by pt, when the airway is partially obstructed by the base of the tongue or by relaxed tissues in the pharynx
A sound that occurs when the muscles around the larynx spasm and narrow the opening of the trachea
a Sound like gargling, usually indicates presence of blood, vomitous, secretions, or other liquid in airway.
a harsh, high pitched sound heard during inspiration, swelling in larynx.
A semicircular device of hard plastic or rubber that holds the tongue away from the back of the airway
Oropharyngeal airway
a curved hollow tube of soft plastic or rubber with a flange or flare a the top end and a bevel a the distal end
Nasopharyngeal airway (nasal airway)
Adequate Breathing
Adult: 8-24 p/min
Child: 15-30 p/min
Infant: 25-50 p/min
Elderly: 20 p/min
Rhythm (Breathing)
pattern is regular
Quality (breathing)
breath sounds are = and full bilaterally, no accessory muscles used in respiration
Depth (Tidal Volume) in breathing
Volume of air felt and heard by placing your ear next to the patients mouth and nose is adequate
Without adequate air, the brain begins to die in ____ to ____ mins
4, 6
Respiratory Failure
occurs when the respiratory rate and /or tidal volume is insufficient
Respiratory Arrest
(Apnea) occurs when pt completely stops breathing.
Agonal Respirations
are gasping-type breaths that a pt may take immediately after going into cardiac arrest.
Positive Pressure Ventilation (PPV)
air being forced into the pt's lungs