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27 Cards in this Set

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What embryonic tissues form the face?
Paraxial mesoderm (somites)
Lateral plate mesoderm
Neural crest
What mature tissues of the face are formed from the paraxial mesoderm (somites)?
Bones
Muscles
Dermis
What mature tissues of the face are formed from the lateral plate mesoderm?
Bones
What mature tissues of the face are formed from the neural crest?
Cartilage
Bone
Dermis
Pia arachnoid
Neuroness
Mesenchyme of the teeth
Generally, where are the neural crest derivatives on the face? The mesoderm derivatives?
Neural crest: front
Mesoderm: back
What bone of the face is derived from the lateral plate mesoderm?
Laryngeals
What bones of the face are formed from the paraxila mesoderm?
Parietal
Petro
Occipitals
Hyoids
What is the mechanism of bone formatino in the face?
Intramembranous
Are the bones of the skull fused at birth? Why or why not?
NO!

You need to get through the birth canal
The brain needs to be able to grow!
How many bones fuse to form the anterior fontanelle? Posterior?
4
3
If there is an increase in intracranial pressure, what will be observed on the head of an infant?
A bulging anterior fontanelle
What genes are involved in cranial fusion?
BMP
NOggin
What is the presentation of Apert syndrome? What is the cause?
Bulging anterior fontanelle

Premature fusion of the coronal sutures
What is cranisynostosis? What is the cause?
Premature fusion of the skull

Lack of noggin due to a mutation in FGFR2 causing abnormal repression.

FGF activates FGFR2, which inhibits Noggin. Normally Noggin inhibits skull fusion, but if it is not present you can't get everything back together
What arches are the derivatives of the original branchial arch?
Maxillary arch
Mandibular arch
What structure gives rise to the medial and lateral nasal processes?
Frontonasal prominence
What two prominences fuse to give the nasolacrimal groove and duct?
Maxillary prominence
Lateral nasal prominence
The frontonasal prominence forms what structure?
Forehead
Bridge of nose
The medial nasal prominence forms what structure?
Philtrum (The shallow groove running down the center of the outer surface of the upper lip)

Nose
The lateral nasal prominence forms what structure?
Alae of nose (lateral part)
The maxillary prominence forms what structure?
Cheeks
Lateral, upper lip
The mandibular prominence forms what structure?
Lower lip
What pharyngeal arch forms the muscles of the face?
2nd
What prominces fuse to form the primary palate and upper incisors?
Medial nasal processes
What processes fuse to form the secondary palate? Where is the origin of these processes?
Lateral palatine processes

Maxillary prominences
What is the difference between syndromic and nonsyndromic CL/P or CP?
Syndromic: single gene mutations

Non-syndromic: genetically complex, environmentally caused factors
What branchial arches form the tongue? What nerves perform which functions?
Anterior 2/3: arch 1. Sensation via V3, taste via VII

Posterior 1/3: arches 3, 4. Taste and sensation via IX. Extreme end via X