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41 Cards in this Set

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This body part consists of nephrons that remove wastes, regulate water and elctrolytes concentration in body fluids; glomerulus is site of urine formation - filters water, glucose, amino acids, urea, uric acid, creatinine and electrolytes but 99% is reabsorbed into the plasma -
KIDNEYS
Attached to each kidney and carries urine to the bladder
URETERS
This body part is the reservoir for urine, when empty rests behind symphysis pubis - in males against the rectum, females against anterior wall of uterus and vagina; full bladder rises above the symphysis pubis and can be palpated.
BLADDER
Urine travels to the outside of the body from the bladder to the meatus via the _________.
URETHRA
What 3 words are used for the process by which urine is expelled from the bladder.
Urination
Micturation
Voiding
This results from impaired bladder function, obstructed flow, and inability to control flow -
Disturbances in Micturation
This type of retention is due to accumulation in the bladder due to inability to empty -
Urinary Retention
Microorganisms present in the tract cause this type of infection -
Urinary tract infection
Loss of control over voiding is known as -
Urinary Incontinence
A surgical diversion of the urine from a diseased or dysfunctional bladder is known as ___________ diversions-
Urinary
Internal pouch is formed and patient inserts catheter to drain urine is a __________ diversion.
Continent
When ureters are brought to the surface of the abdomen; a collecting devise must be worn and is known as ________ diversion.
Incontinent
Name two blood tests used to test urine -
BUN - blood urea nitrogen
Creatinine
This is a screening test for renal disease, metabolic disorders, lower urinary tract alterations, fluid imbalances; done on most patients -
Urinalysis
This urinalysis is done on urine that is relatively free of micro-organisms -
Clean-Voided or Midstream Specimen
This type of test is done when catheterizing or by withdrawing urine from an indwelling catheter; needed for culture and sensitivity -
Sterile specimen
Name one type of 24 hour specimen urine test -
Creatinine-Clearance
This type of x-ray is called a plain film, flat plate or KUB -
Abdominal x-ray
What type of test visualizes renal tissue and pelvis, outines ureters, kidneys, bladder and urethra -
Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP)
This test is used to detect tumors, obstuctions and masses -
CT
This test is used to look at renal anatomy, and abnormal structures -
Renal Ultrasound
This test is done by a physician with a scope inserted through the urethra for visualization and inspection
-may also pass a small catheter into the ureters and renal pelvis -may collect urine specimens from ureters.
Cystoscopy
This test is done to visualize the vascular supply to the kidneys -
Arteriogram
This type of biopsy is done to
-diagnose causes of renal disease and detect malignancy
-to evaluate rejection post transplant
-biopsy needle is placed through the chest wall into renal parenchyma
Renal
This test is done to
-visualize how the bladder empties and fills
-helps R/O causes of incontinence
-a catheter is inserted & bladder is filled with air or dye
-catheter is clamped and films taken
-then catheter is removed
-patient voids while films are taken
Cystogram
If urine color is pale - straw color to amber it is considered -
normal
If urine color is bright red -
bleeding from bladder or urethra
If urine color is dark red
bleeding from ureters or kidney
If urine color is dark amber -
concentrated urine
If urine color is dark brown
indicates presence of billirubin
If urine clarity is transparent
normal
If urine clarity is cloudy -
presence of WBC's
If urine has some odor -
it's normal
If urine has strong odor it means -
may indicate concentration, ammonia smell is from stegnant urine, sweet or fruity is acetone
List some factors that effect urinary elimination -
stress fluid intake
privacy immobility
relaxation medications
medication processess positioning
This type of catheter is a single use and is inserted to drain the bladder, remains in the bladder short time -
Intermittent
This type of catheter is single use and is inserted & remains in the bladder indefinitely -
Indwelling
This type of catheter is inserted surgically into the bladder throught the abdominal wall -
Suprapubic
This type of catheter is used for incontenance if able to empty bladder, attaches to penis similarily to a prophylactic condom, has a collection bag -
Condom
-Required to reduce risk of infection
-Insertion site should be cleansed, perineal care is provided q 8 hours
-Observe meatus for inflammation, swelling, discharge, noting amount, color, consistency of drainage
-keep catheter taped to thigh, secured to bed linen, no kinks, collection bag below level of bladder
Catheter Care
Remove catheter asap to avoid -
infection