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32 Cards in this Set

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How were deaf children typically educated in the early 1800s?
Institutions for those with deafness, blindness, and other disabilities part of the Second Great Awakening’s social reform movement.

1817: CT. Asylum for Education of Deaf and Dumb; Thomas Gallaudet used sign language
1830: First state institution in Virginia. Mostly taught industrial skills
Who was responsible for bringing sign language to the States?
1817 Thomas Gallaudet
What college was chartered through federal legislation to train deaf teachers?
1864: Gallaudet College, chartered through federal legislation. Training for deaf teachers
How did Alexander Graham Bell's method of teaching deaf children differ from other methods then?
1870-1880s: Alexander Graham Bell favored oral speech, not sign language.
What forms of communication/language do deaf and hearing-impaired students use today?
ASL, ESL, Exact Signed English, Total Communication
In what ways did education for the blind follow a similar path for education for the deaf in the 1800s?
Mid 1800s: Industrial focus to work in communities; and focus on ability to live independent
What was Henry Goddard's contribution to ideas about mental retardation in the early 20th century?
linked delinquency to feeblemindedness; sterilization laws and practices.
a) Dull: 80 - 90 (IQ)
b) Moron: 50-70
c) Imbecile: 20-50
d) Idiot, below 20
Why did the terminology change from "mental deficiency" to "mental retardation" in the mid-1900s?
1940S: Shift in language and programs; promotion of special education and persons with disabilities, especially during and after WWII.
a) From mental deficiency to mental retardation
b) Special and adjustment classes, workshop schools
c) State laws expand services; monies available for psychological services
What kinds of legislation were there in the 1950s to promote the teaching of exceptional children?
1958: PL 85-926 provides grants for training special education personnel.
The Elementary and Secondary Education Act and its amendments provided what kinds of programs for children with disabilities?
1965 (ESEA) and its amendments set aside grants to state-operated schools to assist underprivileged and disabled children. Further ESEA amendments followed. In 1966, local schools were included in Federal grant programs for educating the disabled. In 1968, ESEA amendments broadened the range and scope of these special educational services, sometimes called “discretionary” programs.
What are some of the components of PL 94-142?
1975:
free public education, ages 3-21;
IEPs developed jointly; least restrictive environment; unbiased testing; federal monies for building modification
Which populations of children with disabilities are most enrolled in public schools today?
mostly learning disabilities; then speech and language impairments, then mentally retardation. Most have mild not profound disabilities
How is inclusion different from mainstreaming?
Inclusion: students spend most of their time with "normal" students. They are incorporated in normal day
Mainstreaming: they split time between special ed and regular classes
When did schools for "special needs" students begin and why?
Mid 60's. There was nothing before and families complained a bunch, forcing the federal govt to start programs
According to the film "The Road to Brown", what were some of the strategies Charles Houston used to overturn Plessy vs. Ferguson?
launched a number of precedent-setting cases leading up to Brown v. Board of Education. He strategically targeted segregated education as the key to undermining the entire Jim Crow system.
What were the four periods in the Civil Right Movement and what kinds of activities occurred during each period?
1930-1954: Litigation
Use of sociological evidence, Brown vs. Topeka, seperate not equal
1955-1964: Demonstrations
Rosa Parks, white backlash, attempts to stop segregation
1964 - 1968: LEGISLATION
Civil Rights Act, Voting Rights Act
present:IMPLEMENTATION
integration through busing, magnet schools, resistance
How were Brown vs. Topeka I and II different?
I: Brown vs. Board of ed resulted in segregation in schools is wrong
II: implement results of I "with all deliberate speed." gave southern states leway to not do it
Why did the mandate in Brown vs. Topeka II fail?
"with all deliberate speed" was very ambiguous and gave southern states leway and time
What strategies were used in the South to resist desegregation?
1.closing down school systems, 2.using state money to finance segregated "private" schools,
3."token" integration where a few carefully selected black children were admitted to former white-only schools
What were some pieces of legislation during the 1960s to ensure equal opportunity?
Civil Rights Act of 1964, Voting Rights, Act, Bilingual Education Act, 1966 Elementary and Secondary Education Amendments
What is the status of schools today regarding segregation?
Schools are still segregated, just less intentionally. schools are predominately white and college is predominately white
What were some of the federal programs implemented in the 1960s to address equal opportunity for children?
Head Start: Early childhood education for underprivileged children ages 3-5
1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act
What did Title IX of 1972 ensure?
"No person shall be excluded from participation in or subject to discrimination in education, jobs, rights, and status based upon sex.
What were some of the studies which supported federal programs for "disadvantaged" children during the 1960s?
Daniel Moynihan's study of African-American "matriarchal households"

Deutsch: found that poor children typically have a lower IQ.
What are the four frameworks by which the concept of "disadvantaged" students are described by educational researchers (from 1950s-1990s)?
Culturally Deprived (1950s & 1960s): problems at home and community; poor that has experience segregation

Educationally Deprived: Problems exist in the schools

"At Risk" Definitions

"Youth" as a Disadvantaged Population (drugs, sex, etc)
What were some of the studies and arguments used in each of disadvantage frameworks for conceptualizing "disadvantaged" children?
culturally deprived: Anthropologist Havighurst (1965) discussed aspects of what it meant to be "socially disadvantaged"

educationally: Baratz & Baratz argue that children are culturally different not deprived. Schools do not build on these differences, on the students' strengths.

"at risk": McCann and others refer to students who may not
succeed in educational goals because of lack of skills,
knowledge, or dispositions. Implicit in this idea is that students have certain characteristics that can be identified.
How would you, as a teacher, describe a "disadvantaged" student?
poor, race, mental/physical disabled, family problems
What are some of the indicators of "disadvantage" used in the educational scholarship today?
Race & Ethnicity, Poverty Status, Family Composition, Mother's Education, Language Background
What were some of the problems in schools expressed by the document "A Nation at Risk"?
1. Fall behind in industry, science, and technology
2. Issues of mediocrity in education
3. Shortage of teachers, especially in math, science, foreign languages
4. Shortage of specialists in gifted education, and language minority and special education students
5. Professional working life of teachers unacceptable
a. Salary: after 12 years, the average is only $17,000; many need to supplement income
b. Influence: teachers have little influence in professional decisions, i.e., textbook selection
6. Too many methods courses instead of subject matter: 41% of elementary teachers' preparation in methods
What were some of the recommendations forwarded in the document "A Nation at Risk"?
higher standards for ed. students, higher salaries, show an "aptitude" for teaching, better evaluation system for tenure, master teachers involved in teacher preperation
What solutions did the Carnegie Report recommend?
salaries competitve, bachelors in Arts and science first, provide technology for productivity, national board of professional teaching standards, prepare minority students for teaching
What were some of the solutions that the Governors' Report of 1991 recommended?
early childhood ed for disadvantaged, reduced class size from k-3, alt. high schools for drop outs, day care and after school care, train teachers in tech