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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
swelling from fluids
The 4 possible causes of edema:
increased capillary permeability, decreased capillary oncotic pressure, increased capillary hydrostatic pressure, and lymph obstruction
During increased capillary permeability___ escape from the vascular bed and produce edema.
During decreased capillary oncotic pressure and a gain in___ edema can occur.
intersitial fluid proteins
Decreases capillary oncotic pressure is usually associated with:
inflammation or the immune response
Decrease in___ contributes to the decrease in plasma oncotic pressure. Decrease of oncotic attraction of fluid within capillary causes___.
plasma albumin concentration
fluid to move into the interstitial space
Examples of the result in decreases oncotic pressure:
loss of plasma proteins, cirosis of the liver, malnurished, kidney disease, hemorage, drainage clear from wound.
Increased capillary hydrostatic pressure can be caused by:
obstruction (vein blood clot), salt and water retention, conjestive heart failure, and renal disease
The function of lymph
picks uf\p fluid at the capillary bed
Causes of lymph obstruction:
cancer (removal of lymphnodes/lymphodema), infection or parasite, trauma, radiation therapy
The 9 clinical manifestations of edema:
swelling of area, pain from swelling, tighter clothes, weight gain, limited movement of extremity, hypertension, dyspnea, decreased hematocrit, decreased serum proteins
During edema accumulation of fluid:
increases distance required for nutrients, oxygen, and water to move between capillaries and tissue.
Increased tissue pressure may:
diminish capillary blood flow and put pressure on nerves and muscles.
Decreased capillary blood flow can make:
wound healing take longer which increases the risk of an infection and an increase in the formation of pressure ulcers
The pitting edema grade scale:
trace to 4+
Pitting edema is determined by:
an indentation formed when pressed upon
How long the indention stays is how:
pitting edema is graded
Pitting edema can result from:
heart failure and acute renal failure
Brawney edema is a result of:
chronic venous incompentence
Chronic veinous incompentence
veins do not work as well as they used to
Brawney edema can result from:
renal disease
Brawney edema makes:
skin thicker, usually below the knees and a brownish skin discoloration
Brawney edema may:
An example of nonpitting edema
when it is hot and your hands swell
Nonpitting edema does not make:
an indentation
Nonpitting edema is related to:
heat, sodium and fluid retention, and veins not working right
Dependent edema is most common in:
the feet (plane ride)
If dependent edema is found on an already ill person:
find other sources
An example of dependent edema:
when a patient is in bed most of the time their sacrel area or their calves may swell
generalized third spacing of fluid all over body
As with anasarca, when the third space is not available for the body to use the patient may become___.
dehydrated as with burn patients
third spacing in peritineal space (abdomen)
To evaluate and treat edema you should:
treat the underlying cause, evaluate affected extremity, apply support hose, give or restrict fluid and diuretics.
Edema can also occur in the:
Ceberal edema
swelling of the brain and increased intercranial pressure
Ceberal edema can be caused by:
trauma, surgery, and cancer
Pulmonary edema
swelling of the lung tissue
pleural effusion
fluid trapped in the pleural space
Plumonary edema and pleural effusion cause:
pressure on the lungs which results in not good gas exchange
Pericardial effusion
fluid trapped in the pericardial space
Pericardial effusion causes:
compression on the heart thus resulting in the heart not being able to pump as well
2 liters of water =
2.2 kilograms of body weight