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191 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Distribution of biomes tends to be influenced by all but which one of the following?
Which of the following factors is most important in determining the type of biomes found in a particular region?
A particular biome is characterized by
Vegetation and animals only
The only one of the following characteristics that all deserts have in common is
low rainfall amounts
The biome most in danger of desertification is
The biome with the greatest range of daily temperature extremes is the
In shrublands,
cool winters are followed by prolonged drought
The biome with the greatest amount of topsoil and the richest, most fertile soil is
Which of the following biomes would support and be characterized by the greatest number and diversity of herbivores?
A tropical biome with grasses as primary producers and scattered trees adapted to prolonged dry spells is known as a
In tropical rain forests,
competition for available sunlight is intense
The biome with the greatest diversity of life forms is
tropical rain forest
In which biome is plant and animal life greatly "layered"?
tropical rain forest
The removal of trees from tropical rain forest for the purpose of large-scale food crop agriculture is not recommended became
the soil is poor in organic nutrients and erosion increases when trees are removed
Which biome is characterized by plants who leaves drop off in the wintertime?
temperate deciduous forest
Evergreen trees are found in the
tropics, temperate zones, and taiga
Permafrost and low rainfall ae characteristic of which biome?
The biome a the top of a very tall mountain at the equator would be an
alpine tundra
A population
*is the unit of evolution
*consists of interbreeding members of the same species
*shares the same gene pool
*grows at an exponential rate when he birth rate exceeds the death rate at a constant differential, no matter how slight the difference
What distribution pattern is the most common in the natural world?
Population size depends on
Populations of most species
are relatively constant over time
Zero population growth is achieved when
the population size has been stabilized for a long time
A population that is growing exponentially in the absence of limiting factors can be illustrated by which curve?
are limited by the carrying capacity
Limiting factors
*produce more pronounced effects as a population grows
*prevent a population from producing a J-shaped curve
*can be either density-dependent or density-independent
a J-shaped growth curve is converted to an S-shaped one
when the carrying capacity is reached
Interaction between resource availability and a population's tolerance to prevailing environmental conditions defines
the carrying capacity of the environment
In itself, a flood that washes away an entire population of rabbits is
Which density-dependent factor controls the size of a population?
nutrient supply
Which is not a density-dependent, growth-limiting factor?
A network of interactons that involves the cycling of materials and the flow of energy between a community and its physical environment is which of the following?
A community differs from an ecosystem in tha the former does NOT include
abiotic (non-living) factors
In a natural community, primary consumers are
Whic is usually a primary carnivore?
Which is a primary consumer?
Which of the following combinations of organisms could be expected to survive in isolation from other forms of life available?
producers and decomposers
Wastes would accumulate and most nutrients would stop cycling if the _____ in the ecosystem died.
bacteria and fungi
Which of the following is not dependent on the others as a food supply?
Herbivores represent the
primary consumers
Chemosynthetic organisms are
primary producers
The ultimate source of energy in a terrestrial ecosystem is
Primary carnivores are
secondary consumers in the third trophic level
Decomposers perform their recycling efforts on organisms
*at the end of a food chain
*at the top of a trophic pyramid
* that are producers
* that are consumers
*are able to enter a food chain at any trophic level
* are the most numerous organisms in a ecosystem
*include baceria and fungi
*use energy in organic wates and remains
In a mature forest of oak, maple, and hickory trees, a disease causes a reduction in the number of acords produced by oak trees. Which of the following is the least likely result of this?
there might be a decrease in the number of Maple seeds as the disease spreads to other trees in the forest
Elephants are the most common species in the African grasslands. The grasslands contain scattered woody plants, but they are kep in check by the uprooting activities of the elephants. Take away the elephants, and the grasslands convert to forests or shrublands. The newly growing forests support fewer species than the grasslands. Elephants are defined as what type of species in this community?
dominate and keystone
2 species of cuckoo doves live in a group of islands off the coast of New Guinea. Out of 33 islands, 14 have one species, 6 hae the other, 13 have neither, and none has both. What might best explain this? The two birds could
have different niches
Sea gulls fiercly defend the areas around their nests in their clifftop breeding colonies. Within the colony they would show a ___ dispersion pattern.
All prokaryotic cells have
The process by which one bacterial cell transfers DNA to another is
Bacteria can obtain their nutrition by
Cyanobacteria are
The extreme halophiles only survive in environments that are extremely high in
The archaebacteria can be described by all but which of the following
Protists can be
Which of the following does not belong to the protistans?
The simplist of the eukaryotes are the
Most protistans are
All protists have
both nuclei and mitochondria
Pseudopodia are characteristic of which of the following groups of protozoans?
Paramecium is a representative of the
Which of the following are NOT able to carry on photosynthesis?
Which algae usualloy case red tide?
Kelp and Sargassum are examples of
brown algae
The largest algae would be included in which of the following groups?
brown algae
Most freshwater algae belong to which phylum?
The major groups of fungi are assigned names on the basis of
their mode of nutrition
In fungi, food materials are digested
outside the body
The value of fungi in the scheme of nature is described by which of the following statements?
fungi release elements from organic matter
All fungi
perform extracellular digestion
Which of the following could NOT be used to describe any fungus?
Walls of fungi contain
In most true fungi, the individual cellular filaments of the body are called
Which factor is the most important algal contributions to the fungal component of a lichen?
photosynthetically derived food
A lichen is a composite organism made up of
a fungus and an autotroph
Lichens are unable to grow
in polluted areas
Mycorrhizae and plants exhibit
*increase plant growth
*are symbionts
*allow a plant to absorb more water
*increase the surface area for absorption of water and minerals
Algae are to lichens as _____ are to mycorrhizae.
tree roots
Four of the five answers listed below are heterotrophic. Select the exception.
Four of the five answers listed below are terms used in describing fungi. Select the exception.
Which are seed plants?
The first group with flowers were
Which of the following does NOT produce seeds?
All but which of the following would be associated with vascular plants?
Which of the following is true of xylem?
transports water and minerals
The cuticle of a plant is primarily for
retention of water
Stomata are responsible for
water escape from the leaves and carbon dioxide entry
In the life cycle of primitive plants, which of the following predominates?
haploid stage
Which of the following is NOT a major trend in terrestrial autotroph evolution
reduction of he sporophyte phase
The increased complexity among the different divisions of land plants is paralleled by increased complexity of which of the following
*male gametes
*female gametes
Which of the following is NOT a trend evident in plant evolution?
increasing dominance of the gametophyte generation
Which of the following is true concerning seeds?
seeds form from the female gametophyte
The mosses and liverworts are members of which division?
Bryophytes differ from all other plants in that they
have independent gametophytes and dependent sporophytes
Which of the following do NOT possess vascular tissue?
Which of the following is NOT true of seedless vascular plants?
Ferns are more advanced than mosses because mosses lack which structure found in ferns?
A sorus is
a collection of spore-producing structure
were the first plants not to have swimming sperm and were therefore freed from the need for water to reproduce
What is the most appropriate term for a mature pollen grain?
male gametophyte
The conifers, such as pines and junipers, are examples of the
Angiosperms are more advanced than gymnosperms because gymnosperms lack which structure
The vast majority of plant species are
The first group with flowers was the
The flowering plants and gymnosperms differ from other plants by
the production of seeds
Dependence on animal vectors for fertilization and dispersal is characterized by many species of
Most of the water moving into a leaf is lost through
Carbohydrates are stored in plants in the form of
the male part of a flower is the
The male part of a flower includes
the filament and the anther
The primary function of the endosperm is
The primary purpose of fruits is
providing nutrients to seeds
The most successful of the invertebrate phyla with respect to the number of species
An animal with bilateral symmetry
has left and right sides and usually displays cephalization
Major trends in the evolution of animals include
*cephalization, the development of a definite head region
*the development of types of symmetry
*variation in coelomic cavities
*the development of segments
All animals are
multicellular and heterotrophic, and lack cell walls
Which insulates various internal organs from the stresses of body-wall movement and bathes them in a liquid through which nutrients and waste products can diffuse?
a coelom
A digestive tract is said to be complete if it at least
is a one-way tube with a mouth and an anus
Unlike most other animals, sponges lack
a digestive tract, a symmetrical body plan, and tissues
Feeding in sponges is dependent on
collar cells, pores, and water flow
Which of the following groups does NOT have tissues?
Nematocysts are
defensive cells
"Nerve net" describes the nervous system of
Mesoglea is found in which group?
Which body plan is characterized by simple gas exchange mechanisms, two-way traffic hrough a highly branched, saclike gut, and a think, flat body with all cells fairly close to the gut?
Bilateral symmetry is characteristic of
Which of the following is an organism that possesses seate (terminal appendages) and nephridia and exhibits coordinateed movements of circular and longitudinal muscle
The movement of earthworms is dependent on
longitudinal muscles
Which of the following is not related to the other three?
Which of the following has a gut with two openings, a mouth, and an anus?
A mantle is found only among the
Which of the following is in the phylum characterized by a mantle?
Which have a tough circle, a false coelom, and a complete digestive system?
The animal group that contains the greatest number of named species is the
Exoskeletons are most characteristic of wich of the following?
Which of the following is a disadvantage of an exoskeleton
it must be shed for its owner to grow
The most successful forms of life that have ever evoled are the
All of the following adaptations have contributed to the success of the insects EXCEPT
low reproductive capacity
Which are deuterostomes
The water-vascular system is used primarily for
Four of he five answers listed below are true of a majority of animals. Select the exception.
exhibit alternation of generations
Four of the five answers listed below possess some typ eof coelom. Select the exception.
The most primitie vertebrates are members of the group of
jawless fishes
Thevertebrate jaw first appeared in which organism?
Sharks differ from most other fish in that they lack
Sharks, rays, and skates belong to what group
cartilaginous fish
In true fishes, the gills primarily serve which function?
gas exchange
Amphibians most likely evolved from
lobe-finned fish
Four of the five answers listed below are true of a majority of animals. Select the exception.
exhibit alternation of generations
Four of the five answers listed below possess some type of coelom. Select the exception
The most primitive vertebrates are members of the group of
jawless fishes
The vertebrate jaw first appeared in which organism
Sharks differ from most other ifsh in that they lack
Sharks, rays, and skates belong to what group?
cartilaginous fish
In true fishes the gill sprimarily serve which function?
gas exchange
Amphibians most likely evolved from
lobe-finned fish
Amphibians are completely dependent on an aquatic environment for
Amphibians are distinguished from earlier vertebrates by the
development of limbs capable of moving on land
A water environment provides more of all but which one of the following than does an air environment?
The first group to exhibit an amniotic egg was the
Reptiles differ from amphibians in that they
have scales that prevent dessication
Birds differ from earier vertebrates by
ability to fertilze eggs iternally
Adaptations for flight in birds include all but which one of the following?
sound production
Which feature do mammals share in common with all vertebrates?
a column of individual backbones
The chordate feature still present in the human adult is
nerve cord
Which phylum is most closely related phylogenetically to the first vertebrates?
Mammals are the only vertebrates that possess
mammary glands
endothermic with feathers
bony fishes
swim bladder for buoyancy
legless amphibian
placental mammal
modern-dy parasitic jawless fish
invertebrate chordate; no metamorphosis
jawless fishes; now extinct
most primitive fishes with jaws
egg-laying mammal
may be sexually mature but not adult
cartilaginous skeleton; jaws
limbless reptile
adult is call "sea squirt"
In evolutionary terms, an organism's fitness is measured by its
the number of offspring hat survive to reproduce
The smallest unit that can evolve is
Bullocks oriole and the Baltimore oriole are closely related birds, but are they the same species? To find out you could see whether they
successfully interbreed and produce fertile offspring
Which of the following violates the requirements for a stable, non-evoloving population according to the Hardy Weinberg Principal?
an increasing mutation rate
Natural selection is based on all of the following aspects except:
the environment tends to create favorable chracteristics within populations
All of the following statements are inferences of natural selection except:
survival of offspring is no related to the abundance of essential resources
A population of grasshoppers in Kansas has two color phases, green and yellow. These grasshoppers live in the grasslands (prairies). In wet years, the grass is mostly greenn and in dry years it is mostly yellow. Birds, frogs, and mice eat grasshoppes. In a period of several dry years you would expect that due to the principle of ____ there would be _____.
natural selection; there will bemoreyellow grasshoppes than green grasshoppers
If the weather in West Virginia changed to be so cold that snow was on th ground for eight months of the year, over the next few years, wha change might occur?
If there is variation in the population and some squirrels have white fur, these white squirrels would hae a better change to survive and produce more offspring with white fur