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108 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
father of modern geology, went to University of Enburg
James Hutton
the present is the key to the past
Uniformitarianism
make up the continents
Felsic
make up the ocean floor (black magma in Hawaii)
Mafic
granite, felsic composition
intrusive
rhyolite, felsic composition, same as granite but had rapid cool
extrusive
result from weathering
Sedimentary Rock
cooling and solidification of magma, silicates.
igneous rock
particles glued together
clastic
composed of rounded or angular sand particles. Water can flow through it.
Sandstone
Chemically formed rocks
limestone and coquina
usually organic, shell fragments, calcareous sand, and limey mud. the most abundant chemical precipitate
Limestone
organic form of limestone, visible shell fragments
Coquina
arrowheads made of by Indians
Chirt
always begins as a parent rock that is exposed to heat, pressure, etc. and then changes
Metamorphic Rock
granite, shale, and slate
Foliated texture
sedimentary rocks with bedding planes, then stress is applied and original bedding planes disappear and are replaced with cleavage planes
Slate
weathers 1 inch/ 10,000 years
Granite
5 Horizons
- O: Topsoil
- A: Zone of leaching (most leached texture in humid climates)
- B: Zone of accumulation. Contains soluble like calcite in drier climates.
- C: Coarsely broken up bedrock re-growth- scientific name.
- D: Bedrock
5 Factors in soil formation
- Parent matieral: controls mineral content and texture.
- Time
- Climate
- Soil horizons
- Topography: steepness of the landscape, effects erosion.
- Biota: Biologic activity
Thin or absent hummus, thick masses of insouluble iron and aluminum oxides: occasional quartz, iron-rich clays, aluminum oxides, occasional quartz, thin leached zone, maffic igneous bedrock.
Wet climate
3 broad regimes
Moist climate
Dry Climate
Wet climate
Humus and leached soil calcium carbonate and pellets and nodules precipitated (sandstone, shale, and limestone bedrock)
Dry Climate
Humus and leached soil (quartz and clay minerals present)
Moist climate
continents moving across the face of the earth. Proposed by Alfred Wegener
Continental Drift
means “ all lands” propsed by Alfred Wegener
Pangea
A strike-slip fault that connects offsets in a mid-ocean ridge : San Andreas fault
Transfrom fault
Convergent fault
Peru Chile Trench
Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Divergent Fault:
- Compression:
- Tensional:
- Shearing:
- Stresses:
squeezed
Compression
Stretched
Tensional
side by side
Shearing
Fracture
Elasticity
Plasticity
Strain
physical response to stress
Strain
bends and reforms, permanent deformation. Appalachian Mountains
Plasticity
crust is brittle in areas- cracks and breaks. What fault lines are.
Fracture
bends and reforms, stores energy over 100 yrs. San Andreas Fault
Elasticity
Folds
monocline
Syncline
Anticline
bends on one side of the central axis line. Asymmetrical.
monocline
trough- like structures
- toward the central axis line
Syncline
crest ridge-like structures
- away from central axis line
Anticline
a dip-slip fault where the hanging wall block drops down relative to the footwall block.
Normal
Classified on the direction of displacement. San Andreas Fault is a right lateral strike slip fault.
Strike slip
a dip-slip fault where the hanging wall moves up.
Reverse
Faults
Normal
Reverse
Strike slip
the actual point from where the earthquake moves
Focus
point on map directly above the focus of an earthquake.
Epicenter
The shock wave sent through the planet by an earthquake.
Seismic waves
The shock wave sent through the planet by an earthquake.
Move through the Earth’s interior.
Body wave
move only along the surface, the L wave.
Surface waves
Compression waves- compress and expand, 3-7 km/sec First to arrive.
Primary waves
cause rock to vibrate perpendicular. Slow, second to arrive -s wave
Secondary wave
Seismic waves
- Body wave
- Secondary wave
- Primary waves
- Surface waves
records seismic information
Seismometer
recording printing device which records the degree of shaking ( seismic wave intensity)
Seismograph
actual printout of the earthquake
Seismogram
developed by Richter. Using 3 sets of data to determine the Epicenter of a particular Earthquake.
Triangulation
Based on intensity, and ranked from I-XII of destruction of buildings
- Mercalli scale:
Based on earthquake magnitude. Scale is from 0 to 9.3, which is the highest it’s gone so far. Richter developed a way to clock time travel curves: used them to determine the epicenter.
- Richter scale:
actual printout of the earthquake.
Seismogram
developed by Richter. Using 3 sets of data to determine the Epicenter of a particular Earthquake.
Triangulation
Based on intensity, and ranked from I-XII of destruction of buildings
Mercalli scale
Based on earthquake magnitude. Scale is from 0 to 9.3, which is the highest it’s gone so far. Richter developed a way to clock time travel curves: used them to determine the epicenter.
Richter scale
6-7 10 times more energy released, 8-9 100 times more energy released….
Logarithmic scale
harbor wave, must have an ocean floor earthquake that breaks through the ocean floor.
Tsunami
A full or emptied magma reservoir in the shallow portion of the lithosphere
magma chamber
A tunnel below the surface of a solidified lava flow, formed when the exterior portions of the flow solidify and the molten internal material is drained away.
lava tube
another name for a volcano.
cone
A circular surface depression formed by volcanism; built by accumulation, collapse, or explosion.
crater
A large, bowl-shaped crater associated with a volcanic vent
Caldera
a symmetrical mountain landform built from effusive eruptions; gently sloped, gradually rising from the surrounding landscape to a summit crater; the Mauna Loa is the largest one in the world.
Shield
a volcanic landform of pyrolastics and scoria, usually small and cone-shaped and generally not more than 450m in height, with a trunctuated top. Paricutin is an example
Cinder
A cone-shaped volcanic mountain composed of alternating layers of cinders and lava flows. Also known as a stratovolcano. Mt. St. Helens is an example.
Composite
a general term from any intrusive igneous rock body, regardless of size and shape, that invaded layers of crustal rocks.
Plutons
form parallel to the layers of sedimentary rock.
sill
cross layers of the rock they invade
Dike
always horizontal, squeeze between layers of rock and solidify.
concordant
vertical, cut between layers.
Disocordant
4 Drainage patterns
Trellis
Dendritic
Radial
Rectuangular
most common, branched like a tree
Dendritic
spins out from center like spokes on a bike
Radial
only in faulted terrain
Rectuangular
only in folded terrain, Earth’s crust is folded by plate collision.
Trellis
4 ways of Soil erosion
Gullies
Rills
Sheet
Splash
narrow v-shaped channels, indicates more topsoil has been lost than can naturally be replaced.
Gullies
miniature channels
Rills
strips away the layer of topsoil.
Sheet
loosens up the topsoil. Then water begins to accumulate on the surface
Splash
erosion rate is greater than your erosion rate tolerance factor. More than 5 tons/acre/year is considered accelerated.
Accelerated soil erosion
have no topsoil: deeply gullied landscape
Badlands
developed after the dust bowl, teaches how to slow soil erosion.
Colluvium soil conservation
slows runoff, and protects soil
contour plowing
a leveled section of a hilly cultivated area, designed as a method of soil conservation to slow or prevent the rapid surface runoff of irrigation water.
Terracing
water acts as a cutting agent. Ex. of a channel erosional process
Hydraulic force
grinding activity- sediments turn water into liquid sandpaper.
Channel abrasion
Largest scale erosional force within a stream. Channel forms a cut bank.
bank caving
is caused by CaCO5 calcium carbonate
Corrosion
form underneath whirlpools and Eddies, carved round holes in bedrock.
potholes
sand, silt, and clay that discolors the water.
suspended load
heavy stuff (bolders) that bounces and rolls along the bed of the stream.
bed load
has minerals in saturation.
Dissolved load
Fast, heavy surface agitation
Turbulant flow
streamline flow, slower, lower surface agitation.
Laminar flow
primary control factor in stream velocity. Steeper=faster
gradient
size and shape and roughness of channel. A semicircular channel is the ideal shape for moving water.
Channel profile
volume of water passing through channel. Cu ft./sec.
Discharge
miniature channels
Rills