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30 Cards in this Set

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Nebular Hypothesis?
Suggests that all the solar system formed from a big gigantic nebular cloud that consisted of 80% Hydrogen, 15% Helium, and 5% heavier elements.
5% of heavier elements?
Mainly conisists of Silicon, Aluminum, Iron, and Calcium. These are the elements we see most rocks made of.

The rest of the elements are Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Carbon.
5 Billion Years Ago?
The nebular cloud (made up of gases and dust) began to contract and soon formed its own rotational movement.
Nebula Contracted More...
the rotational movement got faster and faster, and soon the cloud was pulled into a disk shape.
Within the disk...
There were several smaller contractions that eventually formed the nuclei from which our planets were formed.
Biggest contraction?
Formed at the center and created the protosun.
Protosun?
High temperatures eventually lowered and allowed all of the materials within the nebula that had a high melting point (like Iron and Nitrogen) solidify. Later they broke off into sand-sized particles.
Calcium, Silicon, Aluminum, and Iron?
Collided and formed large astroids that later created Mercury, Earth, Venus, and Mars.
Mercury, Earth, Venus, and Mars?
The inner or "terrestrial" planets. Due to their close proximity to the sun they are hotter, denser, smaller and have more earth-like features.
Jovian Planets?
The outer planets that were formed while the inner plants formed. They are made up of Nitrogen, Oxygen, Carbon, Carbon Dioxide, and Methane gases.
Outter planets were far from the sun...
Due to the frigid temperatures these planets consisted of ice-water, carbon dioxide, and methane gases.
Big Bang Theory?
Theory that our universe was one solid massive supernova ball. 20 billion years ago, a cataclysmic explosion broke the ball into pieces and sent them hurling through space. The pieces solidified and cooled there and formed the solar system we now observe.
20 Billion Years From Now...
Our galaxies will slow and stop their forward flight and gravitational contractions will occur, causing the planets to combine and join as one mass. Thus birthing a new fire ball.
In order for the galaxies to collide and coalesce...
The universe has to have an average density of one atom for cubic every meter of space (35 cubic feet).

Estimates show that our density is far less than that.
3 major parts of Earth from space?
Hydrosphere
Solid Earth
Gaseous Atmosphere
These 3 parts of earth...
Interact with one another. Shoreline meets the rocks, water, and air.
Pictures show us that...
AIR driven waves (water)hit the shoreline and one type of erosion takes place.
Hydrosphere?
Called the "blue plane." Oceans blanket 70% of the Earth and make up for 97% of Earth's water.
Last 3% of Earth's water?
Comes from things like lakes, ponds, creeks, streams, rain, etc.

Human consumption comes from this 3% and water has a sculpting effect on the environment.
Atmosphere?
life giving "gaseous envelope". Half of it lies at an altitude of 3-5 miles. 90% of it lies within 10 miles and the other 10% beyond 10 miles.
Atmosphere?
Radius of Earth is comparatively too thin with the earth at a 6400 km radius.

We breathe it and it protects our earth from radioactive sunrays and extreme heat.
Energy Exchange?
Is constant between earth's surface and the atmosphere- and between the atmosphere and the space that creates the weather.
Without the atmosphere...
We'd have no erosion, no weathering, no life.

The earth would resemble the surface of the moon.
Solid Earth?
Lies beneath the atmosphere and ocean. It has different composition:

Core
Mantle
Crust
Core?
1216 km make up the dense inner core. Heavier elements make it denser- especially iron, magnesium, and nitrogen. The outer core is less dense and makes up 2270 km.

3486 total km.
Mantle?
Less dense layer (center to surface= less dense). Made up of iron, magnesium and aluminum.

Upper mantle is rigid. Plate techtonics occur in the lower mantle. Moving capability is 10%- total of 2900 km.
Crust?
Thinnest. Ligther/outer skin. The thinner portion.

Oceanic crust: the thinnest.
Continental crust: the thickest.
Lithosphere?
Rigid outer layer (crust) and uppermost mantle.
Biosphere?
Consists of all life forms on Earth in the atmosphere and in hydrosphere. Since these spheres interact constantly, they change their physical environments.
Earth Science includes:
Geology
Oceanography
Meteorology
Astronomy